Second group of problems
It can be defined as humanistic. A person is regarded by thinkers of the Renaissance as the highest value, and his good, his happiness and development were presented as the supreme goal of society and the state. The value of man was determined by the fact that he was created in the image and likeness of God, and therefore has the same universal properties as God the Creator. This idea, in particular, is disclosed by Pico della Mirandola in the introduction to the treatise "900 Theses" under the title Speech about the merits of a person & quot ;. The person's freedom of choice makes him liberated, asserting his creative ability of self-determination.
Pico della Mirandola Giovanni (1463-1494), an Italian thinker, a representative of early humanism. He studied at the universities of Bologna, Ferrara, Padua, where he mastered the scholastic theory. As a young man he attempted to systematize the statements of the great thinkers of the whole preceding era, which he collected in small groups. In 1486 he published "900 theses", which glorified him. In them he published philosophical and theological positions, having made his own introduction, "The Speech of the Advantages of Man." The Papal Curia condemned 13 theses of this work by Pico, and he was arrested for disagreeing to change them. From 1438 g . he settled in Florence, entered the circle of Lorenzo de 'Medici and the Florentine Neoplatonists, was influenced by Savonarola, abbot of the Dominican monastery in Florence. He opposed the administration of the royal family of the Medici, called the Church to asceticism.
Pico died quite young, before he reached the age of Christ.
Humanism (humanity ) is the philosophical and cultural phenomenon central to the Renaissance. Humanism is a system of views, based on the person himself, as the main value of the world, with his rights to freedom, happiness, creativity, love. Humanism was born in the departments of universities, it was represented by teachers, artists, poets, sculptors, diplomats, publicists, and rhetoricians. From circles on interests there were communities of like-minded people, concerned about the revival of ancient culture, its renewal and development. The origins of this process were Dante Alighieri and Petrarch Francesco.
Dante A . in his poem "Comedy", named descendants of the "Divine", (three parts - "Hell", "Purgatory" and "Paradise" - written in the period 1307-1321 and in hundreds of copies distributed throughout Italy ) seeks a transition from the divine principle to the elements of the lower world, he is interested in man in all the diversity in his lifetime and what happens to him after death. In the poem, he in an artistic form reflects the qualities inherent in man and humanity: from virtuous to the lowest. Depending on their manifestation in earthly life, a person after death falls either to hell and is subject to eternal torment there, either in purgatory or in paradise.
The doctrine of man is represented in Dante and in a number of treatises (the philosophical treatise "Pir" stands out). The power of the human mind, comparable to the divine in assessing good and evil, is asserted, the human right to personal freedom, freedom of one's own choice is proclaimed. The mortal and immortal nature of man determines his dual purpose, on the one hand, the manifestation of his own virtue in earthly life, on the other, the contemplation of the "divine face," attainable only after death. At the same time he gives a tribute to philosophy, considering it the main science, since it provides a person with the opportunity to know the world. This thought of Dante was very bold, since up to the XIV century. the true monopoly in the field of philosophy was for theologians and philosophy reflected only church positions.
Petrarch F. as a poet spiritually belonged to the birth of the era of humanism, the Renaissance, when the views of the medieval world began to change gradually. He no longer rejected earthly glory for heaven's sake. Caring for earthly glory is a human duty, it is unattainable without constant creative work. Love is also an earthly feeling, it helps a person in search of truth.
Humanism claimed the joy of earthly existence, glorified man in his virtues, defended the right of human enjoyment with the results of his own work, individual and shared benefit from it. Such humanism contributed to the emergence of geniuses of the Renaissance.
Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), Italian poet and politician, creator of the Italian literary language. Evaluating the scholastic doctrine and breaking away from it, he went to the top of his work - a kind of encyclopedia of his time to the poem "Comedy". In it, Dante in the traditional genre described the author's journey through the nine circles of hell, purgatory and paradise, anticipating many ideas and images of modern culture. Actively participated in the political struggle, as a result of which he was forced to flee from his native Florence, where he was prohibited from living. Twice he was sentenced to death at 1302 and 1315 years. (verdict 1315 d . was abolished by the Pope in 1966). In the process of creativity, Dante worked on treatises "Pir" - the first sample of philosophical prose in folk Italian; "On the monarchy", in which he assumed a universal monarchy, as a pledge of universal unity and prosperity; About folk speech - in it he spoke with the idea of the affinity of the Romance languages.
Dante was married, had two sons and a daughter. Dante died while in exile. He died of a swamp fever, without obtaining permission to live in his homeland in Florence.
Petrarch Francesco (1304-1374), the founder of Italian national poetry, the founder of the Renaissance humanism. He opposed the medieval authorities, scholasticism, including Averroism, believed that philosophy should be practical in nature. Petrarch initiated the humanistic culture, which was based on the revived antiquity. Without giving up faith in God, Petrarch rejected Christian ascetic morality, the idea of contempt for the world and the insignificance of man. In his Songbook - sonnets, canons, sextins, ballads, madrigals for the life and death of Laura (1339-1342), presents classical lyrical expressions, imbued with contradictions between the asceticism of the Middle Ages and the new humanistic worldview of the upcoming New Time, with the understanding of love as an earthly feeling. In the dialogue "My Secret Petrarch described the simple pleasures of earthly life, the man's desire for earthly glory. The turn from theocentrism to anthropocentrism, initiated by Petrarch, contributed to the formation of a new secular anthropology and ethics.
Erasmus of Rotterdam. In adulthood he traveled extensively throughout Western Europe, learning the peculiarities of being and thought in France at the University of Paris, in England in conversations with J. Colet and T Morom, in Italy in the midst of people of different races. As a philosopher he was close to the form of contemplation of the world in its diversity: to all he marveled, did not deny anything, reflected that every thing was created for the sake of man. His book "The Commendable Word of Stupidity" - a philosophical satire, whose parodic-ironic stylistics determines the two-sidedness of opposing judgments ("the universal paradox of being"), dedicated to Thomas Moore, whom he met in England and became thoroughly friends. The book is written as a monologue, uttered by the very Nonsense, choked with delight itself. Stupidity, according to Erasmus, covers all manifestations of life, all classes and professions, if not for stupidity, then the human race would be extinct. It's easy to be a king in your own imagination, than in reality. The book was only reissued 40 times during the life of Erasmus and severely quarreled with theologians, although he valued church canons and remained the spokesman of Catholic views for the rest of his days.
Erasmus of Rotterdam, Latinized name of Desiderius, real name and surname - Gerhard Gerhards (1465-1536), Renaissance humanist (head of "Northern Humanists"), philologist, writer, theologian. Born in the Netherlands in Rotterdam in the family of a priest, but was illegitimate. His parents died early and the guardians persuaded Erasmus to become a monk at the Steyrovsky Monastery, which he later very much regretted. In 1493, he became the secretary of Bishop Cambray, who was president of the Order of the Golden Fleece. This gave Erasmus the opportunity to leave the monastery and go on a journey: France, England, Italy. He knew Greek well and perfectly mastered Latin, translated it, in particular, translated the Greek original of the New Testament with commentaries; moral teachings; dialogs Home conversations and Conversations Quietly & quot ;; treatises "On Free Will", "Against I. Luther". He played a big role in the preparation of the Reformation, but did not accept it. After the Reformation, Erasmus lived first in Louvain, adhering to Catholic orthodoxy, then to Basel, which became a Protestant city. According to contemporaries, the glory of Erasmus rattled from England to Italy and from Poland to Hungary. After Erasmus, only Voltaire had a similar example of scientific veneration and popularity. Erasmus was called the "oracle of Europe", scientists and politicians addressed him for advice. One of the main philosophical works is the "Dagger of a Christian Warrior" (1501), in which he gave instructions and explanations to the uneducated soldiers on compulsory reading of the Bible, as well as the works of Plato, Ambrose, Jerome and Augustine.
Erasmus died on July 12, 1536 in Basel, where he was buried.
The Renaissance figures paid much attention to the artistic creativity of man, the place and role of art in people's lives. They not only created masterpieces of art with enduring value, but also philosophically comprehended this sphere of creative activity - Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) - painter, sculptor, architect, scientist, inventor, engineer: "The Last Supper", written by him in the refectory of the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, portrait of the Mona Lisa ("Gioconda"); Michelangelo Puonarroti (1475-1564) - painter, sculptor, architect, poet: painting the vault of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican, the statue "Moses", the canvas "Lamentation of Christ", the cardboard "The Battle of Kashin", directed the construction of St. Peter's Basilica, the creation of the ensemble of the Capitolium Square in Rome.
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