Soul and the problem of unity of the spiritually-ideal and material
Thought is inseparable from thinking matter and is its product. If so, then is not it a kind of matter? This is exactly what the vulgar materialists (L. Buchner, O. Vogt, M. Moleschott) believed. They thought that the thought is roughly in the same relation to the brain as bile to the liver. Reducing consciousness to the physical reactions of the body is also characteristic of such a direction in psychology as behaviorism (R. Watson).
And. M. Sechenov, I. P. Pavlov, N.V. E. Vvedensky, AA Ukhtomsky and their followers revealed the reflex nature of psychophysiological processes and made it possible to understand the psyche as a system of active activity that develops under the influence of the external world as a leading reflection. The reflex process begins with the perception of the stimulus, continues with the nervous processes of the cerebral cortex and ends with the reciprocal activity of the organism. The concept of the reflex reflects the interconnection and interaction of the organism with the external world, the causal dependence of brain work on the objective world through the means of practical actions of the organism. An essential function of the conditioned reflex is the "warning", or "signaling", about the upcoming events of the external world. In humans, temporary connections are formed from the impact of both the real objects of the surrounding world and verbal stimuli. The role of nervous brain mechanisms is primarily in the analysis and synthesis of stimuli.
The impact of a conditioned stimulus, getting into the cerebral cortex, is included in a complex system of connections formed as a result of past experience. Therefore, the behavior of the organism is due not only to this effect, but to the entire system of already existing connections, and also to the individuality of the person.
An important principle of the reflex activity of the brain is the principle of reinforcement - the reflex activity is reinforced, which is supported by the achievement of the result. Reinforcement of reflexes is effected by the action itself with the help of a feedback mechanism - when a corresponding effector apparatus (muscles, glands, whole organ systems) is activated by some reflex, the impulses arising in it due to its work return to the central link of the reflex. They signal not only the work of the body, but also the results of this work, which makes it possible to make adjustments to the proceeding and to achieve an adequate fulfillment of the intention. The feedback task is to constantly inform the brain of what is happening in the system it controls.
However, mental activity is characterized not only by its physiological mechanism, but also by its content, i.e. what is actually reflected by the brain in real life.
The outer image of a thing that I experience is something subjective, ideal, spiritual; it does not reduce either to the object itself outside of me, or to the physiological processes that occur in the brain and generate this image: the image of fire does not burn, and the image of the stone is devoid of weight and hardness. At the same time, being a reflection of reality, the image exists and can not exist outside the concrete historical personality with all its individual characteristics. It depends on the development of the nervous system and brain, on the state of the organism as a whole, on the wealth or poverty of the people's practical experience, on the level of historical development of the knowledge of mankind.
When we say that the content of our sensations and perceptions is objective, then we mean that this content more or less faithfully reflects the subject. Thing in the head is an image, and the real thing is its prototype. The subjectivity of the image, with the exception of cases of pathology, deception and delusions, is not evidence of the weakness of human consciousness. It is this that provides an opportunity for man to know the objective world. If the image of the object was not subjective, but would be its material reflection, then no cognition would be possible.
Images of things can be sensual, visual (for example, visually similar to their originals), but they can also be conceptual, so that the similarity is no longer external, but internal (similar in content, in the type of components). Ideality of the image consists only in the fact that it does not reduce to certain external objects, nor to the material physiological processes in the brain. Ideal - is the given object to the subject. And the vast majority of people are aware of things, themselves, their thoughts, , what's going on in the brain itself. And this is because the person (and the animal) is not given the physiological states of his brain, but the external world is an object. Otherwise, as L. Feuerbach noted, the cat would not rush at the mouse, but would scratch its own eyes with claws. The difference between the material and the ideal is also expressed in the fact that the laws of thinking do not coincide with the laws of those physical, chemical and physiological processes that occur at this time and in this connection in the brain and which constitute the material basis of consciousness.
Consciousness exists not only as something belonging to a given subject, but also as forms of social consciousness fixed by means of language. For example, the system of scientific knowledge exists independently of the subjective representations of individual individuals. Historically developed knowledge thus acquires a relatively independent character primarily from its material carrier, the language.
You can not deny the reality of consciousness: the soul is a special form of being. Such a reality is the whole spiritual culture of society, and the inner spiritual world of each person. Thought is valid. But its reality is ideal. For every other person, my consciousness exists as a reality, which he perceives through the sensory forms of its detection (deeds, words, gestures, facial expressions).
A person whose brain is a control system of a high degree of complexity is designed not only to receive, store and process information, but also to formulate an action plan and carry out active, creative management of them.
A person has the ability to logically connect and develop in his mind thoughts in such a way that they are not just a copy of perceived objects and their connections, but a creatively transformed reflection in which thought anticipates the natural course of events. And in this sense, consciousness can be detached from the direct reflection of reality. Such a leading reflection, if it corresponds to the laws of the real world, is a subjective prerequisite for the person's transforming practical activity.
The human mind, according to Hegel, is not only powerful, but also cunning. Its trick is that a person with the help of technical inventions forces nature objects to interact, while carrying out his own goal. He turns the forces of nature into means of realizing his goal. Man creates what nature did not produce before him. After all, nature does not build cars, aircraft, etc. All these are materialized results of knowledge. The things transformed by man, their design, scales, shapes and properties are dictated by the needs of people, their goals - they embody the ideas of people. It is in the creative and regulating activities aimed at transforming the world and subordinating it to the interests of man and society, that the basic life meaning and historical necessity of the development of consciousness consists.
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