# The structure of the foundations of the division of...

## Base structure of the physics section

The result of these methodological revolutions can be represented in the form of a structure, which in the case A = PIOj appears as the structure of ORFj, and in the case A = VIO - as the structure of the theoretical description of the corresponding process (empirical phenomenon).

Scheme 9.2.1. The structure of the theoretical description of the physical process and the foundations of the physics section (when A = PIO)

In this structure, first, the theoretical (description of the behavior of the IE) and the operational ("materialization") of the part are distinguished. Second, in the theoretical part, the mathematical and model layers are highlighted. The model part contains two main concepts: the physical system (object) A (PIO or SIV) and its states at the time t ( S A ( t ))) . With they are used to provide a theoretical description of generalized motion ( process ) As a transition of a physical system from one state to another. The connection between states is defined by means of a mathematical layer (in this its meaning and function), in which the equation of motion (CA) is the central element. The equation of motion contains, in one form or another, mathematical images of the physical system f ( A ) and its states f ( S A) , f [ F ( t ) (mathematical images are certain types of mathematical structures - vectors, tensors, operators, etc.). Thus, time in dynamics plays a special role - it numbers states (in some sections of physics, for example, equilibrium thermodynamics, this role is played by other measurable quantities).

The set of possible states is the most important characteristic of a physical system. A state is a concept describing the change (movement) of the system and giving full possible information about the system at a given time, and by the equation of motion - at other times. This determines the concept of a state of a physical system that is closely related to other elements of the structure depicted in Figure 9.2.1.

In addition to the specified elements of the theoretical part, the physical PIO system and its initial state must have a material empirical realization, and measurable values ​​(distance, speed, mass, etc.). ), which enter into the physical model of the system and its states, must have the corresponding reference and comparison operations with the standard. This provides the above-mentioned preparations (or selections) and measurements that constitute operational part that is directly

is associated with the model layer of the theoretical part (and through it indirectly - with a mathematical layer). Note that even in the case where the phenomenon exists only in a complex laboratory facility (for example, superconductivity), we are talking about the preparation of a system in some state, which further behaves "naturally" (in the engineering the whole process is prepared, the essence of the machine is in the implementation of a certain process, this is the process provided by gear transmissions, it differs from the fall of the body).

This means ideal cooking and measurement projects that are implemented within specific materials and technical capabilities with a certain accuracy (this is the difference between, say, ideal ammeter or thermometer and real devices that provide a certain accuracy).

Introduction instead of vague positivistic watched clear concepts the system being prepared in a certain state (electron unobservable & quot ;, but prepare ) and measurable value (charge magnitude "unobservable", but "measurable") removes the difficulty of including devices in the description of the experiment. The proposed scheme can be developed to describe an arbitrarily complex experiment using complex devices using complex theories. An example of such a description is given in paragraph 10.2, for an experiment on an accelerator of elementary particles.

It is very important distinction between the theoretical and operational parts, fixing the boundary between them. The second belongs to the sphere of technical actions, the first - to the sphere of speculation about nature. For example, the preparation of a smooth inclined plane or the measurement of length by a ruler refers to technical actions, rather than to natural phenomena, although they may include devices that have "theoretically loaded" elements (parts), i.e. elements that can be described as SIV. But the device, along with this, necessarily contains a technical part of the type of comparison with the standard, which is not the subject of natural science (we will return to this question in paragraph 15.4).

In the case of A = , the PIO schema 9.2.1 turns into a RUF schema, a diagram describing the system of postulates defining the basic concepts of the physics section, including PIOs and operations on them. ; materialization & quot ;. The structure shown in the diagram (9.2.1) holds for all branches of physics. From the section to the section only the content of the elements indicated on it changes.

Based on the scheme 9.2.1, you can specify the system of postulates that constitute the RUF (when the system A - is the PIO) and use the implicit type of definition to specify the basic concepts [ 21].

The common for all sections of physics are the idea of ​​motion as a change in the states of a physical system (object) (9.1.3) and space and time as a container of objects and events (see Chapter 14). The content content of the remaining items for different sections of physics may differ.

The question of how the physical phenomena stand out and how the VIO model is sought for them is of particular importance. When building the WIS model, the basic "physical picture of the world" is used. in the form of a set {PI0j}. At the same time, the identification of the phenomenon (what needs to be explained) and the construction of a SIS model for it require certain skills that are developed in the process of learning in the course of solving numerous learning problems, participating in research with more experienced colleagues. The knowledge of historical examples is also useful here. The latter give an idea of ​​the PIO-type of work. From the history of science it is possible to understand where and how new PIO appear. From it it is obvious that in the XVII-XVIII centuries. they are taken from particular problems. Some of them emerge from empirical phenomena (apparently, the hydrodynamics of Bernoulli began with this). Here, probably, should include mechanics and the theory of gravitation of Newton, built to derive the empirical laws of Kepler, based on observations of the motion of the planets Tycho Brahe.

Other PIOs arise in the course of solving theoretical problems, such as the theoretical description of an abandoned (falling) body, a problem inherited from Galileo by Aristotle. In the nineteenth century, with the example of the creation of electrodynamics, it is clear that the creation of the foundations of a new branch of physics with its PIO is associated with the establishment of order among a set of empirical laws. In the XX century. a characteristic feature is the phase of formulating a theoretical contradiction, the resolution of which leads to a new division of physics. So there arose a special theory of relativity (STR) and general relativity (GTR), as well as quantum mechanics, which as a division of physics was created in 1925-1927. in many respects as a solution to the paradox of corpuscular wave behavior fixed by the de Broglie hypothesis in 1924 (preceded by the old quantum theory that solved the problems of the spectrum of the blackbody, the hydrogen atom and the photoelectric effect, also formulated in the form of a contradiction).

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