2. The views of Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and the stoic view of man and society
Ancient thinkers constantly occupied the problems of man and society. This was a conscious process of understanding the essence of social and social. The man, the social, gradually stood out from the natural and was placed above it. The man himself, his world, way of life and thinking really became the subject of philosophical comprehension of the ancients. Thinkers of this era purposefully began to deal with the problem of cognition, sensory and logical in cognition, the development of the doctrine of truth and error, the laws of logical thinking. They assessed man and society based on an objective vision of the world as it was in the V-I centuries. BC, and this was a complex historical time, where slaves and slaveholders co-existed in a single social space, those in power and humiliated when cruelty to man was something ordinary.
Socrates-Plato (V-IV centuries BC)
Socrates - one of the first Athenian philosophers, a contemporary of Democritus. He is interesting to many. This much includes not only his teaching, but also his life, as it was the embodiment of his teaching with views on the surrounding world, including society and man in this world. Socrates for his long life has not written works worthy of publication, but this does not speak of his philosophical infertility, but emphasizes the nature and methods of his thinking activity and creativity. His teaching is real, but not in his own texts, but in reflecting his thoughts in the activities and works of his followers, disciples and opponents. A wide circle of Athenian thinkers and figures was concentrated around Socrates: Xenophon, Alcibiades, Critias, Plato, Fedon and others.
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The main source of knowledge about Socrates are the works of his disciples - Xenophon and Plato, as well as Aristophanes, Aristotle and some others. Therefore, with a sufficient share of truth, it is said that every person can have his own Socrates.
The essence of the views of Socrates is a fundamental turn of thought from the external, the divine - to the inner, the human. Everything that exists is reduced by Socrates to the human person.
The very same personality is reduced to a practical beginning - the will. But the will must have an unconditional object or purpose. This goal is the highest good. Good is the inner content of human consciousness and man must freely grasp this content. But the highest good is not personal, but common for all. "There must be something unconditional," noted the philosopher, "a general, objective, mandatory for all."
The formula of the Delphic oracle, inscribed above the entrance to the temple of Apollo in Delphi: "Know thyself," became for Socrates the motto of one's own life with the statement: "I know that I do not know anything." Self-knowledge had for him quite a certain human significance. To know oneself is to know oneself as a social and moral principle, moreover not only and not so much as a person, but as a person in general. Therefore, the main content and purpose of philosophy Socrates considered ethical issues relating to the existence of man and the realization of this being. Emphasizing this fact, Aristotle in "Metaphysics noted that Socrates was concerned with issues of morality, but nature as a whole did not investigate. Morality, according to Socrates, is the knowledge of what is good and beautiful, what is good for a person and what contributes to his good and happiness in life.
Socrates' attitude toward unconditional good acts as a benchmark in the evaluation of any form of people's activities. In this sense, his judgment on politics and the state system is of special importance. Socrates, like Plato later, argued that at the head of the state there should only be moral people, that is, philosophers who know and comprehend the essence of good and justice. Therefore Socrates did not accept democracy as a form of state government. He believed that "it's foolish of officials in the state to choose by beans, whereas nobody wants to have a steering, carpenter or flautist" chosen by beans. "
The legacy of Socrates is closely linked with the philosophy of his disciple Plato. In the dialogues of Plato it is difficult to distinguish the viewpoint of Socrates and himself. Therefore, Socrates's philosophical conception of man and society looks similar to the Platonic vision of man and society. However, Plato considered all processes and phenomena, including man, through an objective idea, which Socrates never did. According to Plato, there is not a man in himself, but because there is a idea man: between a person and his image there is a fundamental difference, if a person exists for a certain period the idea of man is eternal and not subject to destruction.
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From the point of view of Plato, are ideal and all the most important ethical principles of human life are good, good, justice. In the surrounding world, their concrete and imperfect incarnations can be trampled on, but not themselves, ideas are not subject to human change in their essence. This approach involves love and respect for a person who sometimes experiences undeserved humiliation, but should know that the ideas of justice, goodness, respect are eternal and will necessarily come true.
Socrates (470-399 BC), philosopher, thinker, sage. His father was a stonemason, his mother was engaged in midwifery. Socrates was married. Most of the time he spent in the squares, in the palestres, in the people. Socrates entered into conversations with anyone who wanted to speak to him. He was a folk teacher and an esteemed person. The style and character of his conversations are reflected in the dialogues of Plato. However, in 399 BC Seventy-year-old Socrates was captured by the authorities and sentenced to death for violating in his conversations theological guidelines. The official accusers of Socrates became the democratic politician Anit, the poet-tragedian Melet and the unknown rhetorician Likon, there were also numerous hidden accusers, outspoken malignants, who were afraid of truths in the wisdom of Socrates. They argued that Socrates is guilty of not worshiping the gods recognized in the state, but introducing new Deities and corrupting the youth, as he teaches it to another worship. In response to the charges, Socrates said that he always told people only the truth. Friends offered him help in escape from Athens and, accordingly, life, but did not receive consent, since the thinker did not want life if his words, with which he addressed people, would be considered a lie. He died after drinking a verdict of a poisonous chikuta, but he did not change his views on the world and the place of the person in it.
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