Lecture 7. The world as a process
1. Movement as a way of existence of matter and its basic forms
In the previous lecture, we examined the main attributes of matter - space and time. Matter outside space and time does not exist, just as space and time do not possess this in themselves. Space, time and matter objectively have a universal connection.
At the same time, knowing the world around us, we see that there is nothing absolutely frozen and immutable in it, everything is in motion, passes from one form to another. At all levels of material systems there is a diverse movement - elementary particles, atoms, molecules, genotypes and social formations; each concrete object interacts with the environment, and this interaction involves a movement (change, transformation) of one kind or another. Any object that is at rest with respect to the Earth moves around the Sun, along with the Solar System, a galactic movement takes place, and in the Universe, motion takes place according to the objective laws inherent in all material formations.
Absolute rest, balance and immobility in the universe (the world) is not, every peace, balance are relative, are only a certain state of motion: any material object, any material system, a set of material systems move [interact, mutually change] in relation to each other .
The stability of the external form of material objects is due to a certain interaction between their constituent material formations, and any interaction that develops in space and time acts as a movement (and does not matter - in the micro- or macro world it is represented); Similarly, any movement includes the interaction of various types of matter (matter, field, cosmic vacuum, flora and fauna, society) and structural formations of matter (abiotic, biotic, social).
In the most general form, the motion turns out to be identical to any change, to any transition from one state to another.
In philosophy, the movement is represented as a universal attribute of matter, as a way of its existence. In the world there is no and can not be matter without motion, nor is there movement without matter. Here, the philosophical representation of the material picture of the world is through the dialectical unity of space, time and movement in their objective unity, which is confirmed by the numerous natural discoveries of mankind, the main of which is A. Einstein's theory of relativity.
The questions of the essence of the material picture of the world will form the basis of our reasoning when considering this philosophical problem.The dialectical picture of the world, formed in accordance with the data of the natural sciences, proceeds from the premise that motion, like matter, is inconceivable and indestructible: it is not brought from outside but is contained in the very material nature of the universe. Some forms of material motion are transformed into others. The structural forms of the aggregate state of matter are subject to some "crossing", the material fields behave in accordance with the inherent patterns of development, and the vacuum structures of the cosmos are so far neutral because of insufficient cognition. Biotic and social material systems have their own kinds of movement at the genetic and target levels. But no kind of movement is taken from nowhere. Movement is self-development in the sense that the tendency, the impulse to change of a state, is inherent in the matter itself, it is the "causa sui," that is, the cause of itself. And if, according to the hypothesis of the English astrophysicist Arthur Eddington (1882-1944), our universe occurred as a result of the "Big Bang" (Primarily a similar idea arose in Immanuel Kant), then the causes of this "explosion" it is necessary to search not in the external environment, but in the matter itself (as we discussed in the previous lecture). Philosophical view of this reality is that it is not rejected, but the material essence of the universal processes that occurred due to changes in the matter itself, and not in its subjective perception, is confirmed.
Motion is the unclean continuity (continuity) of changes, and it is represented by the totality of a unity of continuity and discreteness: it is the unity of variability and stability, anxiety and rest .
In an infinite flow of being, that is, never ceasing movement (change), there are always moments of discrete stability, manifested primarily in preserving the intrinsic nature of each given movement in the form of equilibrium of phenomena and their relatively stable form, that is, relative rest. Substance, field, cosmic vacuum, flora and fauna, society have different properties, movement and relative calm in them are not the same. In particular, the field rest is the preservation of a certain state of motion, and each form of the field has its constant, stable characteristics, which are not prolonged to other field material formations. In society, relative peace is a state of stability, the stability of social formations.
Peace in the universe (the world) exists only as a characteristic of movement in its some stable form: in space - with respect to objects on the same plane; in the ocean - with respect to underwater reefs; in nature - relative to surrounding objects. Whatever the object has changed, as long as it exists, it retains its steady certainty. Sunlight does not cease to be sunlight due to the fact that the speed of photons of light reaches 300 thousand kilometers per second. The essence of light, that is, its being (motion) and are contained in the speed of photons.
Absolute peace is impossible, for to find it means to cease to exist. This applies to any structural level of organization of matter - abiotic, biotic and social. Hypothetically, absolute rest is equal to the absence in matter of its attributive properties, and hence to the absence of matter as such. Peace always has only a relative character: bodies can rest only in relation to any frame of reference, conditionally adopted as a fixed one. Under the motion of the body, A. Einstein noted, we always mean changing its position relative to another body.
Movement is inherently specific. Specificity depends on an innumerable number of qualitatively different material formations that are present both in nature and in society. Modern science knows only that part of these movements that is mastered by reason. We are talking about known forms of movement, that is, ways of existence and functioning of material systems in accordance with their structure.
Typological development of the main forms of the motion of matter involved many philosophers. One of the first such typology was presented by F. Engels in the work "Dialectics of Nature". He distinguished the following forms of movement:
- mechanical - spatial displacement;
- physical - electromagnetism, gravity, heat, sound, changes in aggregate states of matter (to date, the development of science - gaseous, liquid, solid, plasma, condensate "Bose-Einstein");
- chemical - the transformation of atoms and molecules of substances;
- biological - metabolism in living organisms (plus: variability and heredity of organisms, transmission of bioinformation - genetics);
- social - social changes, as well as thinking processes.
This typology retains its significance and does not contradict our previous reasoning in the lecture VI, because it proceeds from the dialectical principle of removing the higher inferior and irreducibility of the higher forms of motion toward the lower.
The forms of the movement of matter are directly related to certain levels of the structural organization of matter, its kinds (which we talked about in the previous lecture), each of which is characterized by its own system of regularities and its carrier.
Abiotic the level of the structural organization of matter (inanimate nature, inorganic) - it is characterized primarily by the interaction and transformation of elementary particles and atomic nuclei by the law-governed interaction, as a mode of existence and functioning. Particular manifestation of this level of motion of matter are all kinds of nuclear energy. As a result of the redistribution of bonds between atoms in molecules, changes in the structure of molecules, certain substances are transformed into others. This process constitutes the chemical form of motion. At the abiotic level of the organization of matter, there is also a physical form of motion - electromagnetism, sound vibrations, etc. All processes inherent in the abiotic nature of matter are subject to the objective laws of existence and development of the universe.
It should be noted the forms of motion of macroscopic bodies: heat, crystallization processes, changes in the aggregate states of matter - solid, liquid gas, plasma, condensate "Bose-Einstein". Geological form of motion includes a complex of physico-chemical processes associated with the formation of all kinds of minerals, ores and other substances in conditions of high temperatures and pressures. In the stars such forms of motion as self-sustaining thermonuclear reactions, the formation of chemical elements, are manifested. With particularly large masses and densities of cosmic objects, processes such as gravitational collapse and the transition of the system to a superdense state are possible, when its gravitational field no longer releases particles of matter and electromagnetic radiation outward. In particular, the so-called "cosmic black holes", the idea of which was expressed back in 1783 by the English thinker John Michel. Modern astronomers have discovered in the center of our Milky Way galaxy - a supermassive black hole, nearly 3 million times the size of the Sun. On the scale of the metamir, we are witnessing the expansion of the universe after the "Big Bang" ( Big Cotton "), which can also be considered one of the forms of movement of the super-large material system in space and time. It is on the abiotic structural level of matter that the marked forms of the motion of matter are manifested. The processes inherent in the inorganic form of the motion of matter, have a pronounced physicochemical feature, they are legitimate.
Biotic the level of the structural organization of matter (living nature, organic matter) for forms of motion of matter involves the inclusion of processes occurring both within living organisms and in superorganismic systems by gene-like interaction, as a way of existence and functioning.
Life is a way of existence of protein bodies and nucleic acids, the content of which is a continuous metabolism between the body and the environment, the processes of reflection and self-regulation aimed at self-preservation and reproduction of organisms, genetic transmission of information.
Life on the planet was a natural result of the development of a set of physicochemical processes on Earth in conjunction with the universal processes. Evolution of the living was from the pre-cellular forms of the existence of the protein to the cellular organization, to the formation of unicellular and then multicellular organisms. Primates were the last frontier in the evolution of organic nature and the initial one in the transition to man. Man was the crown of the biological, organic form of the motion of matter. The processes inherent in the organic form of the motion of matter, have a pronounced genetic feature, they are genosome.
Social the level of the structural organization of matter (individuals, society, humanity) is the highest form of its movement through expediency, as a way of existence and functioning.
Mankind is not just a material system, but a spiritualized, minded and thinking matter. The bearer of the social form of the motion of matter is man, for he is a rational biosocial being (homo sapiens), who has an inner spiritual life and purposeful activity. The social form of the movement of matter is expressed in subject-object relations and relationships that arise in the process of interaction of people, social groups, social institutions within society, and also includes their relations with the surrounding reality. Relationships in the universe-human system are generated by public and individual activities based on public and individual needs and reflect the essence of the whole philosophy. They also contain the specificity of the social form of the movement of matter, consisting in the expediency of this movement, as well as its fundamental difference from other forms of motion of material systems - inorganic and organic. But, at the same time, the higher one removes all the lower, assuming its manifestation in the presence of appropriate conditions. The processes inherent in the social form of the motion of matter, have a pronounced goal-setting feature, they are appropriate.
So, we have determined that there are qualitatively different structural levels of organization of matter to which certain forms of motion correspond. The difference in quality means that the qualitative uniqueness of one structural level can not be explained by the qualitative uniqueness of the other. In particular, the biotic organization has a special meaning, inexplicable within the limits of only the physical picture of the world. In a biotic environment, we are dealing with such phenomena as adaptation, metabolism, growth, reproduction, struggle for existence, variability and heredity. However, these qualities are not inherent in the material systems of the abiotic level. At the same time, it is necessary to emphasize once again that the higher levels remove the lower ones.
From movement, as an attribute of matter expressing the way of its existence, in conjunction with space and time, it follows the necessity of comprehending such categories as development and universality of connections.
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