Theory of political modernization - Study of socio-economic...

Theory of Political Modernization

One of the prevalent modern political theories, with which its authors try to substantiate the most effective ways of development of a number of countries, and first of all their political systems, is the theory of political modernization. This is primarily about so called developing countries, which were granted state independence in the middle of the 20th century. and who were at different levels of economic, political and cultural development. The way these countries were transformed into developed industrialized countries was interpreted as the "modernization" of all spheres of their social life-economic, political, spiritual, etc. At the same time, "countries that have reached a high level of development in a natural way were viewed as carriers of" spontaneous modernization ", and those that still have to go this way - as states of" reflected modernization ".

As examples for imitation, which developing countries should follow in the process of modernization, many statesmen and political scientists of both developing and developed Western capitalist countries were most often led by Western European countries and the United States. Modernization was perceived by them mainly as "Westernization," that is, the assimilation of the experience of Western countries in the field of economics, the activities of the institutions of bourgeois democracy, the realization of spiritual values ​​as a way of catching up development, and its main means was the financial assistance of all the same Western countries.

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However, such views and practice of modernization of developing countries did not justify themselves. Many countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America, initially adopted a similar development strategy and the said model of modernization, have not achieved significant success.

In many cases, instead of raising the economy and improving the institutions of bourgeois democracy, serious crisis phenomena have appeared in various areas of public life in these countries: a decline in production, an increase in the level of unemployment, a multiple increase in corruption, and the arbitrariness of the local bureaucracy. Thus, Westernization or reckless copying of the experience of Western countries by developing countries has not solved the problems of modernization of the latter.

Formed in the 1970-1980's. a new generation of politicians and scientists in these countries began to pay more attention to the experience of their development and traditions, it is more reasonable to combine traditions and innovation. If the priority of universal (ie common to many countries - Note. Aut.) criteria and goals for future development, the main emphasis of scientists began to do on the national form of their implementation. "

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In addition, they began to attach much greater importance to the participation of the broad masses of the country's population in political and other serious transformations of public life, which is a condition for their successful implementation.

At the same time, researchers of socio-economic and political processes in developing countries point to different prerequisites for modernization and ways to implement it. Those of them who hold liberal views believe that the necessary prerequisites for modernization are the formation of the middle class and the achievement of relatively high literacy of the population. In general, the nature and dynamics of modernization depend on the open competition of free elites and on the degree of political involvement of ordinary citizens. "

In the opinion of conservative researchers, the modernization of political institutions does not create the possibility of a real influence of the broad masses of the population on political processes. They argue that, on the one hand, the masses are not ready for active and organized political activity, and on the other, modernization of political institutions does not envisage this. The goal of modernization is rather to ensure the power of political elites alternating with each other. Therefore, the so-called modernization does not lead to the development of genuine democracy and ensuring equality of political rights and freedoms of citizens.

Many scientists who adhere to different political orientations agree that the main thing in the political life of the society is to preserve the stability of the functioning of the political system that ensures the combination of political and other interests of all social groups and social strata. This can be achieved by strengthening the political power of the patriotic forces of their countries and at the same time comprehensively expanding democracy. In this case, "for the modernized states, a strong political regime with a legitimate ruling party is needed that can contain the tendency for power imbalance."

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