Time and space of everyday life. - Social anthropology

Time and space of everyday life.

A detailed description of the space and time of everyday life is given in VD Leleko's monograph. We note only some spatio-temporal characteristics of everyday life.

The basic time rhythm of everyday life is daily. It is the day that is defined by the alternation of recurring habitual everyday ( peremptory ) processes and events. Repeated every day (every day, every morning, evening and every night) becomes everyday if it is inevitable, habitual, it goes without saying, if it is experienced and evaluated as routine, trivial, often - as gray and boring, sometimes - as joyful and pleasing (for example, a hobby of evening leisure).

The levels of the daily time structure are highlighted.

Natural-biological level, which determines the functioning of a person as a biological organism: alternation of sleep and wakefulness, eating regimes, etc.

Socio-cultural level, which determines the systems of calculation and accounting of time, calendar features, etc. Thus, the ancient cattle breeders were guided by the duration of the lunar month, and the farmers - for the duration of the solar month. Within the calendar time, everyday life as weekdays, working days is opposed to holidays, weekends.

Since the content of everyday life is filled with immediate, ongoing concerns, the present, based on the immediate yesterday, and looking at the immediate future, is the most important of the three forms of time (present, past, future).

The intra-day division of time (time of day, hours, minutes and seconds) allows us to time specific actions and actions at a certain time of day, which determines the measured, habitual nature of everyday life.

Q. D. Leleko highlights four sectors in the structure of the daily time.

The time of the first sector is allocated to the satisfaction of bodily needs: sleep, nutrition, natural dispensations, sex, movement and other physical activity, hygienic procedures, appearance, and psychological, spiritual needs.

The second sector is filled with deeds and worries, which are defined as "housekeeping."

The third sector of the daily time is given to work, livelihood, and here can be attributed and daily study.

The fourth sector is the free time sector; free from everything that relates to the second and third type of needs, and to the time necessary to meet them.

The space of everyday life - is the territory where the events of everyday life occur. It includes a number of spaces.

Body space: The body top with the head and hands in most cultures is of high value, and the corporeal bottom most often has a low cultural value (is ritually "unclean"). Thus, the European culture of the XIX century. realized a complete taboo on public manifestations of the organic life of the body, assumed its intimization. In modern culture, there is a rehabilitation of human corporeality and the "bodily bottom", in particular.

Dwelling space - a set of functional zones: food zone (fireplace, stove, kitchen, pantry, cellar, table, dining room), sleep area (bench, bed, bedroom), body care area (washbasin, bathroom, toilet, etc.). In the traditional Slavic culture, the selected zones and the space of the house as a whole are also divided into male (right) and female (left), sacred (red) and (i) worldly (oven).

The daily space of the city is represented by trading places (markets, shops, shops, etc.), catering places (taverns, , bars, cafes, etc.), drinking water places (rivers, ponds, wells, water pipes, etc.), transport arteries (rivers, canals, streets , roads, etc.), work places, work areas (for large cities).

The daily space of the settlement is territorially connected and in fact, in the sociocultural sense, confronts imperiously administrative, sacred-religious and festively-recreational space houses of rulers, local authorities, administrations, temples, cathedrals, churches, theaters, concert halls, stadiums, alleys, squares, gardens, etc.). The main areas with government buildings and temples located on these are government-administrative and sacral centers of the settlement space, topologically and symbolically organizing its entire territory. Everyday and non-everyday on their territory co-exists, being functionally or in time divided.

thematic pictures

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