Types of knowledge - Fundamentals of philosophy

Types of cognition

Nowadays it is easy to fall into error, identifying knowledge in general with knowledge only scientific (or even with what is usually considered scientific) and discarding all other types of knowledge or treating them only to the extent that they can be likened to scientific knowledge. This is due to the modern peculiar "scientistic" the social atmosphere, the cult of science or, to be more exact, the science of the sciences, inherent in modern society and existing, despite the growing criticism of the costs of scientific and technological progress and even in parallel with it. The development of the sciences not only revealed many facts, properties, laws, established many truths - a specific type of thinking was developed. But confusing knowledge in general with its scientific form is a profound error. In everyday life, not all problems facing a person and society require an indispensable approach to science: the book of life is open not only to the eyes of the scientist, it is open to all who are able to perceive things, feel and think.

If we proceed from the fact that the basis of all knowledge is experience in the broadest sense of the word, then the types of human knowledge are distinguished first and foremost by the experience of what kind they are based.

It makes sense to distinguish between & pass; passive knowledge of the reader of a work of art or a student writing a lecture, from the knowledge of the author, the knowledge of the creator - whether it be a scientist, artist or religious ascetic. (Although, in the first case, an element of creativity is not excluded, it is said that a brilliant writer needs a genius reader.) " Copyright knowledge is the most brightly different in type, primarily but the nature of personal propensity. Man, wrote Goethe, born and developed for the so-called exact sciences, from the height of his reason-reason, will not easily understand that there can also exist an exact sensual fantasy, without which no art is really inconceivable. Around the same point, the investigators of the religion of the sense and religion of reason argue; If the latter do not want to recognize that religion begins with a feeling, then the former do not admit that it must develop to reason " . However, for outstanding creative personalities, the harmony of cognitive abilities is also characteristic.

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Life knowledge and knowledge is based primarily on observation and savvy, it is empirical in nature and better aligned with accepted life experience than with abstract scientific constructs.


The importance of worldly knowledge as a precursor of other forms of knowledge should not be understated - common sense is often more subtle and penetrating than the mind of another scientist. In the well-known story of Thales, who fell into the well, an abstract philosopher who does not know how to look under his feet is sarcastically diminished in the face of such everyday, everyday knowledge. In everyday life, we reflect without special reflection, without much concern for the truth to come out ... we reflect in the firm conviction that the thought agrees with the subject without realizing it, and this confidence is of the greatest importance. " . Based on common sense and ordinary consciousness, such knowledge is an important orienting basis for the daily behavior of people, their relationship with each other and with nature. Here its a common point with science. This form of knowledge develops and is enriched with progress in scientific and artistic cognition; it is closely related to language human culture in general, which is formed on the basis of serious theoretical work in the process of world-historical human development. As a rule, everyday knowledge is reduced to ascertaining the facts and their description.

Scientific knowledge involves the explanation of facts, their comprehension in the whole system of concepts of this science. The everyday knowledge states, and even then it is very superficial, how this or that event proceeds. Scientific knowledge answers the question not only as , but why it proceeds in this way. (In any case, the answer to such a question is the ideal of scientific knowledge.) Scientific knowledge does not tolerate unsubstantiated evidence - this or that assertion becomes scientific only when it is justified. Scientific is first and foremost an explanatory knowledge. The essence of scientific knowledge lies in understanding reality in its past , present and future , in reliable generalization of facts , in volume , that for it finds the necessary, natural, for a single - common strong , and // this is based on foreseeing various phenomena. Predictive force is one of the main criteria for evaluating scientific theory. The process of scientific knowledge is by its very nature creative. The laws governing the processes of nature, society and human existence are not simply inscribed in our immediate impressions, they constitute an infinitely diverse world that is subject to exploration, discovery and comprehension. This cognitive process includes both intuition, and conjecture, and fiction, and common sense.

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Scientific knowledge covers in principle everything relatively simple, which can be more or less rigorously generalized, convincingly proved, to introduce into the framework of laws, causal explanation, in a word what fits into the accepted in the scientific community paradigms. In scientific knowledge, reality is clothed in the form of abstract concepts and categories, general principles and laws, which often turn into extremely abstract formulas of mathematics and, in general, into various kinds of formalizing signs, for example chemical ones, into diagrams, diagrams, curves, graphs, etc. But life, especially human destinies, is many orders of magnitude more complex than all our scientific notions, where everything is "spread out on the shelves"; therefore, the need for people to go beyond the limits of strictly demonstrative knowledge and immersion into the realm of the mysterious, intuitively sensed, not grasped Strictly and smoothly hewn scientific concepts, and in some "fuzzy", but very important symbolic images, the finest associations, premonitions, etc.

For all the difference in the worldly wit profane and abstract designs high science they have a deep in common - the idea of ​​orientation in the world.

The key in both worldly and scientific knowledge is recognition, that is, recognition of the already known. This profound remark of SL Frank explains the fundamental inadequacy of scientific knowledge and at the same time opens a non-trivial path "to the depths" the theory of knowledge itself.

To scientific knowledge also closely practical knowledge. The difference between them is mainly in the target installation. If the main figure of scientific knowledge is a scientist, a member of the academic community, then for practical knowledge - an engineer or industrial manager. The goal of the scientist is the discovery of the regularity, the general principle, the "recognition" new idea. The goal of an engineer is to create a new thing (device, device, computer program, industrial technology, etc.) based on already well-known, fixed principles.

Artistic knowledge has a certain specificity , the essence of which is integral , and not dissected reflection of the world and especially of man in the world. The artistic work is based on the image, and not on the concept - here the thought is clothed in "living persons" and is perceived in the form of visible events.

Art is given to grasp and express such phenomena that can not be expressed and understood by any other means. Therefore, the better, the more perfect the work of art, the more impossible is its rational retelling. A rational arrangement of a picture, a poem, a book is only a certain projection or a cut of these things. If by this projection the content of the work of art is exhausted completely, then it can be asserted that it does not meet its purpose. Unsuccessful book that is written for the purpose of "embodying" those or other preconceived author's concepts or opinions; its fate is to remain more or less skilful in illustrating these opinions. On the contrary, the path of art research is fruitful, as it is formulated by LI Solzhenitsyn: "All the irrationality of art, its dazzling twists, unpredictable findings, its tremendous impact on people - are too magical to exhaust their world view of the artist, his idea or the work of his unworthy fingers ... Where scientific research needs to overcome the pass, there artistic exploration by the tunnel of intuition is sometimes shorter and more accurate.

From the point of view of intuitionist epistemology, the criterion of truth, directly based on self-belief ("come and see"), indicates the high position of artistic knowledge in the hierarchy of types of knowledge. Another distinctive moment of artistic knowledge is the requirement of originality, which is inevitably inherent in creativity. The originality of the work of art is conditioned by the factual uniqueness, the uniqueness of both its subject and object. This is the root of the opposition of the artistic method to the scientific one.

In art, artistic fiction is allowed, bringing from the artist of what exactly in this form is not, and probably will not be in reality. The world created by the imagination does not repeat the real world. Artwork deals with convention - the world of art is always the result of selection. Artistic fiction, however, is permissible only with respect to the single form of expression of the general, but not the most general - the artistic truth does not allow any arbitrariness, subjectivism. An attempt to express the general outside of organic unity with the particular (typical) and the individual leads to a schematization and sociologization of reality, and not to the creation of an artistic work. If the artist in his work reduces everything to the individual, blindly follows the observed phenomena, the result is not a work of art, but a kind of "photography"; in this case we are talking about imitation and naturalism.

In science, the main thing is to eliminate all individual, individual, unique and keep the common in the form of concepts. Science and art lie in different planes. These kinds of knowledge of the world draw their method in the nature of their specific content. Scientific knowledge rests on the general, on analysis, comparison and comparison. It works with multiple, serial objects and does not know how to approach a truly unique object. This is the weakness of the scientific approach. Therefore, with all the successes of scientific knowledge in the depths that are revealed in it, the question of its ultimate adequacy to that single Universe that eternally remains before us can never be removed. Figuratively speaking, no better astronomy will ever remove the great mystery of the "starry sky above us," according to the winged expression of Kant.

P. Florensky, speaking of the ways of finding truth - the task of all knowledge, initially calls two - intuition, ie, direct perception, and discourse, i.e. reduction of one judgment to another, rational analysis. Implying various theories of knowledge, he distinguishes between "sensual intuition" and " empiricists, i.e. direct perception of the object by the sense organs, subjective intuition & quot ;, i.e. self-perception of the subject, among the transcendentalists and quite vaguely characterized by them "subjectively-objective intuition" various mystics.

The search for Florensky in the area, if allowed to be expressed, of mystical physiology signifies a desire to go beyond the dominant type of cognition, which in modern philosophy is felt as a "shrunken" and bored compared with the knowledge available to people of the past. The modern dominance of the scientific type of cognition is felt as a regression.

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