Types of knowledge, the diversity of types of knowledge - Philosophy

Types of cognition

Variety of types of cognition

Speaking of knowledge "in general", one should discuss the extraordinary variety of species or characters of a single essence of knowledge. One can not consider as knowledge only one of its kinds, arbitrarily chosen, more likely coming to mind or prompted by a typical mass view. In Pasha time is not difficult to fall into error, identifying knowledge in general with knowledge only scientific (or even with what is usually considered scientific) and discarding all other types of knowledge or treating them only to the extent that they can be likened to scientific knowledge. This is due to the modern peculiar "scientistic" the social atmosphere, the cult of science or, more accurately, the science of the sciences, inherent in modern society and existing, despite the growing criticism of the costs of scientific and technological progress and even in parallel with it. The development of the sciences not only revealed many facts, properties, laws, established many truths - a specific type of thinking was developed. But confusing knowledge in general with its scientific form is a profound error. In everyday life, not all problems facing a person and society require an indispensable approach to science: the book of life is open not only to the eyes of the scientist, it is open to all who are able to perceive things, feel and think.

It is interesting to note that the elementary knowledge are also present in animals (especially highly developed ones), to which they serve as a necessary factor in the realization of their behavioral acts. For a long time, the notion that animals are not capable of abstraction in any form was dominant. However, developing since the middle of the XX century. the science of animal behavior - ethology (from the Greek ethos - morals, character, habit, custom) quite confidently refutes this opinion. Apparently, some forms of abstract knowledge are available in the living nature not only to man. This fact, by the way, additionally draws attention to both the unity of the different sides of what is called knowledge, and the nature of this unity.

If we assume that the basis of all knowledge is experience in the broadest sense of the word, then the types of human knowledge differ primarily in the way in which experience they are based. According to M. Scheler, human cognition is largely justified by the experience of a loving relationship to the world; Therefore, without love there is no knowledge. AS Khomyakov wrote: knowledge of truth is given only by mutual love. The experience of love is called upon to be reinforced and corrected by the power of the mind: beyond the efforts of the mind, the attainment of the value of the significant other is not given.

The type of knowledge is closely related to the characteristics of the knowing subject. Some types of knowledge by their nature are related only to a certain subject. Thus, the truths of faith in Christian teaching open and are accessible to cognition only "in a conciliar", in the unity of a person with the living organism of the church (which does not undo, obviously, the historical fact of individual formulation, "authorship" of specific theological positions). This unity, catholicity, has nothing to do with the spirit of the "collective" and is not characterized by formal signs (not identical, for example, to the "legally correct" collection of bishops or the judgment of the pope, pronounced "from the chair", according to the Roman Catholic term). FM Dostoevsky was particularly attracted to the idea, which was close to him in essence, expressed by VS Soloviev: "... humanity knows much more than it has so far expressed in its science and in its art."

It makes sense to distinguish between & pass; passive knowledge of the reader of a work of art or a student writing a lecture from the knowledge of the author's knowledge, whether it be a scientist, an artist or a religious ascetic (although in the first case the element of creativity is not excluded; they say that a genius writer needs a genius reader). Copyright knowledge most clearly differs in type, primarily in the nature of personal propensity. Man, wrote Goethe, born and developed for the so-called exact sciences, from the height of his reason-reason, will not easily understand that there can also exist an exact sensual fantasy, without which no art is really inconceivable. Around the same point, the followers of the religion of the sense and religion of reason argue; if the latter do not want to recognize that religion begins with a feeling, then the former do not admit that it must develop to reason ". However, for outstanding creative personalities, the harmony of cognitive abilities is also characteristic. Biographies of many scientists, philosophers say that, despite their complete dedication in their main research activity, they were deeply involved in art and wrote poems, novels, painted, played musical instruments. The type of giftedness is not necessarily related only to the high knowledge. In life - at the same time in all the corners and alleys - there are many real academics of life sciences working and working. And this is also a special gift.

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