V.E. Frankl. Doctor and soul, A. Schweitzer. Reverence...

V.E. Frankl. Doctor and Soul

FRANKLE Victor Emil (1905-1997) - Austrian psychologist, psychiatrist, philosopher. Received a medical education. During the Second World War he was sent to a concentration camp, where his whole family was lost, except for his sister. The tragedy of the concentration camp led him to search for the meaning of life, which, along with pleasure, is also concluded in life and death. In 1955

Frankl returned to Vienna, lived a long and many-sided life, died at the age of 92 years.

Developing the foundations of humanistic psychology, Frankl used the concepts of existential, sense, existential vacuum, "Sunday neurosis" (a feeling of emptiness after a working week). The value of existence lies in the fact that, resisting doubts, do not lose the meaning of their activities.

Major works: Doctor and Soul & quot ;; Man in search of meaning & quot ;; "Saying Yes to Life."

Love is the only way to comprehend another human being in the depth of his personality. No one can fully understand the very essence of another human being until he loves it. Through the spiritual act of love, he acquires the ability to see the essential features and properties of a loved one; and even more so, he begins to see what is potentially contained therein - something that has not yet been revealed but is to be realized. In addition, with his love, the lover creates conditions that help the loved one to translate these possibilities into reality. Helping him to realize what it can be and what it should become, it makes possible their implementation.

In logotherapy, love is not seen as simply an epiphenomenon of sexual attraction in the sense of the so-called "sublimation". Love is the same primary phenomenon as sex. Normally, sex is a form of expression of love. Sex is justified and allowed, provided that it serves as the expression of love, and only as long as it serves as an expression of love. That is, love is understood not just as a side effect of sex, but, on the contrary, sex is understood as an expression of a feeling of unity called love.

A. Schweitzer. Reverence for life. Culture and ethics

Schweizer Albert (1875-1965) - German-French philosopher, humanist, physician, theologian, public figure, fighter against the threat of use of nuclear weapons.

Life is the central meaning-building category of Schweitzer's philosophy and the basis of the ethical renewal of humanity as a whole. Renewal is an improvement in the nature of man, opposed to social transformations, which can most often worsen this nature. Ethics and culture constitute an organic unity, and the criterion for the development of culture is the level of development of humanism in a given society. Schweitzer considered the important task of philosophy the development of an optimistic worldview that helps a person in unfavorable circumstances. The name Schweitzer is forever associated in human culture with humanism, the struggle for life and man.

Essential works : & "Relief before life & quot ;; Culture & Ethics .

Reverence for life

Every true knowledge passes into experience. I do not know the essence of phenomena, but I comprehend them by analogy with the will to live in me. Thus, knowledge of the world becomes my experience of the world. Cognition, which has become an experience, does not transform me in relation to the world into a purely cognizing subject, but it arouses in me a sense of inner connection with it. It fills me with a feeling of reverence for the mysterious will to live, manifested in everything. It makes me think and wonder and lead me to the heights of reverence for life. Here it lets go of my hand. Then it can not accompany me. Henceforth, my will to live is to find the way in life ...

As in my will to live is the desire to continue life and after the mysterious exaltation of the will to life, the desire, which is usually called desire, and the fear of destruction and the mysterious depreciation of the will to live, which is usually called pain, so these moments are inherent in the will to the life that surrounds me, regardless of whether it expresses or remains mute.

Ethics, therefore, consist in the fact that I feel the urge to express equal reverence for life both in relation to my will to live, and in relation to any other. This is the basic principle of the moral. The good that serves the preservation and development of life, evil is that which destroys life or prevents it.

It is especially strange to find in the ethics of reverence for life that it does not emphasize the difference between higher and lower, more valuable and less valuable life. She has her own reasons for doing so ... For a truly moral person, all life is sacred, even that which from the human point of view seems subordinate.

The ethic of awe before life makes us feel an unlimited great responsibility ... It does not give us a ready recipe for permitted self-preservation, it orders us in each separate case to polemicize with the absolute ethics of self-denial. In accordance with the responsibility that I feel, I must decide what I should sacrifice from my life, my property, my right, my happiness, my time, my peace, and what I must keep to myself.

Why do I forgive someone something? Usually ethics say: because I feel compassion for him. She represents people in this forgiveness too good and allows them to give forgiveness, which is not free from the humiliation of another ... I must forgive everything infinitely, so if I do not do it - I will be insincere towards myself and will act as if I not as much to blame as the other in relation to me. Because my life is so much tainted with lies, I must forgive the lie committed towards me. So I myself do not like, I hate, slander, I show insidiousness and arrogance. I must forgive quietly and imperceptibly. I generally do not forgive, and do not bring it to the fore. But this is not exaltation, but the necessary expansion and improvement of ordinary ethics.

Culture and Ethics

Ethics, therefore, consist in the fact that I feel the urge to express equal reverence for life both in relation to my will to live, and in relation to any other. This is the basic principle of the moral. The good that serves the preservation and development of life, evil is that which destroys life or prevents it.

In fact, everything that is considered good in the usual moral assessment of the relationship between man and man can be reduced to the material and spiritual preservation and development of human life, and to the desire to give it the highest value. Conversely, everything that is considered bad in relations between people can be reduced, as a result, to the material and spiritual destruction or inhibition of human life, as well as to the lack of the desire to give life the highest value.

... A person is truly moral only when he obeys the inner urge to help any life that he can help and is held back from causing any harm to the living. He does not ask how much this or that life deserves his efforts, he does not ask also whether she can and to what extent feel his kindness. For him, life as such is sacred. He will not tear off the leaf from the tree, he will not break a single flower and will not crush an insect. When he works in the summer with a lamp, he prefers to close the window and sit in a stuffy state so as not to see a single butterfly that fell with burned wings on his desk.

... Ethics is unlimited responsibility for everything that lives.

.... Normal ethics is looking for compromises. It seeks to establish the extent to which I must sacrifice my life and my happiness and how much I must leave to myself at the expense of the life and happiness of other lives. Thus, it creates a relative, applied ethics ...

The ethic of awe before life does not recognize relative ethics. She recognizes only that which serves the preservation and development of life. Any destruction of life or harm to it, no matter under what conditions it happened, it characterizes as evil. She does not recognize any practical mutual compensation for ethics and necessity. Absolute ethics of reverence for life always and every time in a new way polemicises in the person with the reality. She does not reject the conflict for his sake, but forces him to decide for himself, to what extent he can remain ethical and to what extent he can submit to the need for destruction or harm to life and to what extent, therefore, he can take the blame for all this yourself.

A person becomes more moral not because of the idea of ​​mutual compensation of ethics and necessity, but thanks to the fact that he hears the voice of ethics more and more loudly, that he is becoming increasingly possessed by the desire to preserve and develop life, that he becomes more and more firm in his resistance to the need to destroy and causing harm to life.

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