Ways to work with philosophical projects - History...

Ways to work with philosophical projects

Many scientists perceive the pluralism of philosophical projects with perplexity. They, as a rule, do not deny their ideological wealth, but clearly they find it difficult to understand philosophy as a whole. Below we will present a method of operating with philosophical projects, which we often use in working with undergraduates and graduate students.

To begin with, philosophical directions are presented in a tabular or graphical form. The basic concepts are called the names of their creators (Table 2.1).

Table 2.1. Philosophical directions and their criteria

Philosophical directions

Problematic theories

Criterion

Analytical Philosophy (Logicistic Option)

Russell - Carnap - Quine

Logicism

Analytical philosophy (linguistic variant)

Wittgenstein-Austin-Rorty

Language Games

Critical rationalism

Popper - Lakatos - Albert

Falsification

Phenomenology

Husserl - Scheler - Merleau-Ponty

Concepts as a synthesis of experiences

Existentialism

Heidegger - Jaspers - Sartre

Freedom of the person

Hermeneutics

Dilthey - Gadamer - Habermas

Communicative

Reason

Dialectical Materialism

Marx - Ilyenkov - Shchedrovitsky

Dialectics

Poststructuralism

Foucault - Derrida - Lyotard

Distinguishing

The second step in assessing the degree of relevance of philosophical trends is to determine the weights of the criteria. On this account, in the theory of decision-making, many methods are proposed. The simplest of them is to evaluate all criteria on a 10-point system (Table 2.2).

Table 2.2. Evaluation of the main criteria of philosophical directions

Criteria

Score

Weighing factor

Logicism (L)

7

0.25

Language games (I)

3

0.11

Falsificationism (F)

6

0.21

Concepts as a synthesis of experiences (P)

3

0.11

Communicative mind (K)

3

0.11

Freedom of the person (C)

2

0.07

Dialectics (D)

2

0.07

Distinction (P)

2

0.07

The weighting factor shows the part that this or that particular score amounts to from the sum of all evaluations (in the example under consideration it is equal to 28).

The evaluation criteria is made by one or another researcher in accordance with his personal preferences. A representative of formal and natural sciences can put high marks on logicism and falsificationism. Art critic most quickly appreciate the distinction and freedom of man. In Table. 2.2 shows the estimates of a typical rationalist. If the potential of individual philosophers is compared, it is unacceptable to proceed from personal preferences. Logically Russell, Carnap and Quine clearly outperform other philosophers indicated in Table. 2.1. Accordingly, poststructuralists do not know their peers in adherence to the concept of distinction. But is there any reason to compare the criteria? After all, it can not be ruled out that in principle they are incomparable. The experience of the development of philosophical trends shows that their representatives adopt achievements from each other. The concept of the language game was proposed by analyst Wittgenstein. Subsequently, he was assimilated both hermeneutics and poststructuralists. The above example, as well as many others, shows that the criteria for philosophical directions are to some extent related to each other. That's why they can be compared. Along with the criteria, philosophical concepts can also be compared, for example, as it is done in Table. 2.3.

Table 2.3. Comparison of philosophical systems by individual characteristics

Theories

Criteria

Total

Λ

F

I

P

To

C

P

A

Quine

7

4

3

1

2

3

3

1

3.74

Popper

4

7

1

1

2

5

5

1

3.68

Wittgenstein

5

3

7

1

1

4

5

1

3.57

Habermas

3

2

4

2

7

4

4

4

3.44

Rorty

3

1

8

3

2

7

7

1

3.44

Carnap

7

4

2

2

1

2

1

1

3.42

Shchedrovitsky

3

3

1

3

5

5

5

3

3.28

Foucault

3

3

3

2

3

6

6

1

3.12

Lakatos

4

6

1

1

2

2

2

1

3.05

Austin

4

2

5

2

2

4

4

1

3.04

Lyotard

1

1

8

4

1

8

8

2

2.95

Russell

6

3

1

2

1

2

1

1

2.85

Husserl

3

2

2

7

2

2

2

1

2.73

Derrida

1

1

6

4

1

7

7

2

2.69

Albert

3

5

1

1

2

2

2

1

2.59

Sartre

1

1

2

4

3

7

6

4

2.57

Merleau-Ponty

2

2

1

5

2

3

3

2

2.36

Jaspers

1

1

2

4

3

7

5

1

2.36

Marx

1

3

1

3

4

2

2

6

2.35

Gadamer

1

1

3

1

5

3

3

4

2.15

Ilyenkov

1

1

1

3

2

3

3

7

2.10

Heidegger

1

2

3

2

4

2

2

2

2.01

Scheller

2

1

1

6

2

2

2

2

1.87

Table 2.3 displays the addictions of the rationalist, changing from one researcher to another. It is actual that any person has certain philosophical preferences, which if desired can be presented in quantitative form. The pluralism of philosophical systems does not exclude the possibility of comparing them. In our opinion, it is desirable to use the achievements of at least the main philosophical trends of our time. Neglect of them leads to the fact that even outstanding scientists philosophically look extremely unpretentious. Philosophical isolationism is also flawed, because beyond the field of view of the researcher are the achievements of philosophical trends that are not known to him. Of course, the content of philosophical trends should be taken critically. Above, we have repeatedly noted not only achievements, but also flaws in various philosophical directions. Modern philosophy is constantly evolving, so you should avoid philosophical reservations. In philosophical terms, it is better to live in the 21st century than in the depths of past historical epochs.

Conclusions

1. Philosophers offer original projects that open new perspectives to all sciences, including psychology and pedagogy.

2. It is desirable to be aware of the achievements and flaws of philosophical trends.

3. Synthesis of achievements of various philosophical trends is quite possible.

4. The absence of philosophical self-determination inhibits the development of any person, especially a scientist.

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