What is true
Beauty and the value of truth
In the sunlight of consciousness, truth appears in its own and living form of knowledge. Eternal harmony of truth and beauty. In ancient times, the Egyptian sages in the symbol of infallibility and wisdom wore a gold chain with a precious stone, called the truth. The unfading beauty, harmony and nobility of the Parthenon - the Greek temple of the goddess of wisdom Athena Pallada - symbolize the power of wisdom and the invincibility of truth. In the mythological image, Truth is a beautiful, proud and noble woman; sometimes it is the goddess of love and beauty of Aphrodite in a chariot drawn by pigeons - the eternal symbol of the world.
The pursuit of truth and beauty as the highest good, according to Plato, is frenzy, ecstasy, love. It is necessary to love the truth in such a way, Leo Tolstoy said, in order to be ready at any moment, having learned the highest truth, to renounce everything that formerly believed to be the truth. The greatest minds of mankind have always seen in the truth its high moral and aesthetic meaning. G. Hegel wrote about this: "The boldness of seeking the truth, the belief in the power of the mind is the first condition of philosophical knowledge. A person should respect himself and recognize himself worthy of the highest. Whatever high opinion we might have of the greatness and power of the spirit, it will still not be high enough. The hidden essence of the universe does not possess the power that would be able to resist the boldness of knowledge, it must open before it, unfold before its eyes the riches and depths of its nature and allow it to enjoy them. "
When, for example, FM Dostoevsky claimed that beauty will save the world, then, of course, he was far from any kind of religious and mystical motives, but spoke precisely of this high sense of truth, denying it purely utilitarian, pragmatic meaning. The real truth can not be flawed: its mere pragmatic utility can serve as a moral elevation of mankind. The concept of truth humanity combined with the moral concepts of truth and sincerity. Truth and truth are both the goal of science, the aim of art, and the ideal of moral motives. The truth, G. Hegel said, is a great word and an even greater subject. If the spirit and soul of man are still healthy, then at the sounds of this word the breast should rise higher. The attitude of man to truth expresses to some extent its essence. Thus, according to Herzen, respect for truth is the beginning of wisdom.
The spirit of disinterested search for truth is full of the history of civilization. For the ascetics of science and art, the search for truth has always been and constitutes the meaning of all life. The memory of them is stored by grateful descendants. History remembers the seekers of truth, who risked for her reputation, were persecuted, accused of charlatanry, dying of beggars. This is the fate of many innovators, pioneers of the spider. At the entrance to the temple of science, as well as at the entrance to hell, there must be an inscription: "Fear should not give advice!"
Truth is the greatest social and personal value. It is rooted in the life of society, playing an important social and moral-psychological role in it. The value of truth is always immeasurably great, and time only increases. The great truths of humanism, the principles of social justice are paid for by the blood and death of many of those for whom the search for truth and the protection of the interests of the people formed the meaning of existence, who made us more enlightened, smarter, more cultured, and opened the true path to happiness and progress.
Truth, error, error and lie
Usually, truth is defined as the correspondence of knowledge to an object. Truth is adequate information about an object, obtained through its sensory or intellectual comprehension or communication about it and characterized from the point of view of its reliability. Thus, the truth exists not as an objective, but as a subjective, spiritual reality in its information and value aspects. The value of knowledge is determined by the measure of its truth. In other words, truth is a property of knowledge, and not of the object of knowledge itself. Not only the coincidence of knowledge with the object, but also the subject with knowledge. We say, for example, about a true friend and we understand this person, whose behavior corresponds to friendship. Truth is objective, it needs not only to comprehend, but to realize. We need to create an objective world that corresponds to our notions of it, our moral, aesthetic, socio-political, economic needs and ideals. This understanding of the truth reveals more subtle and adequate links to beauty and good, transforming their unity into an internal differentiated identity.
Knowledge is reflection and exists in the form of a sensory or conceptual image - right up to the theory as a whole system. Truth can be in the form of a separate statement, in a chain of statements, and as a scientific system. It is known that the image can be not only a reflection of the existing being, but also of the past, imprinted in some traces that carry information. And the future - can it be the object of reflection? Is it possible to evaluate as a true idea, acting as a design, constructive thought, oriented to the future? Apparently not. Of course, the idea is based on the knowledge of the past and the present. And in this sense he relies on something true. But is it possible to say about the very idea that it is true? Or are such concepts more appropriate, as expedient, realizable, useful - socially useful or useful for a certain class, social group, individual person? The idea is not evaluated in terms of truth or falsity, but in terms of expediency (provided with moral justification) and realizability.
Is there objective truth or falsehood in such an assertion as "pleasure is good," in the same sense as in judging "the snow is white"? To answer this question, it would take a very long philosophical discussion. One can say: in the last proposition we are talking about a fact, and in the first - about moral values, where much is relative.
Thus, the truth is defined as an adequate reflection of the object by the cognizing subject, reproducing reality as it is in itself, outside and independently of consciousness. This is an objective content of sensory, empirical experience, as well as concepts, judgments, theories, doctrines, and, finally, the entire holistic picture of the world in the dynamics of development. The fact that truth is an adequate reflection of reality in the dynamics of its development, gives it a special value associated with the prognostic dimension. True knowledge gives people the opportunity to rationally organize their practical actions in the present and to foresee the future. If cognition were not from the very beginning a more or less true reflection of reality, then man could not only reasonably transform the surrounding world, but also adapt to it. The very fact of human existence, the history of science and practice confirms the validity of this position. So, the truth is not sitting in things and is not created by us & quot ;; truth is the characteristic of the measure of the adequacy of knowledge, the comprehension of the essence of the object by the subject.
Experience shows that humanity rarely reaches the truth otherwise than through extremes and delusions. The process of cognition is a nonsmooth path. According to D. I. Pisarev, in order for one person to discover a fruitful truth, it is necessary that a hundred people incinerate their lives in unsuccessful searches and sad mistakes. The history of science narrates even for centuries, during which incorrect ideas were accepted for the truth. Delusion is an unwanted but legitimate zigzag on the path to truth. Delusion is the content of consciousness that does not correspond to reality, but is accepted as true. The history of the cognitive activity of mankind shows that both errors reflect - truth, one-sidedly - objective reality, have a real source, "terrestrial" base. No, in principle, there can not be delusions, which do not reflect anything at all - albeit very indirectly or perversely perverted. Are, for example, images of fairy tales true? We answer: yes, true, but only remotely - they are taken from life and transformed by the power of the imagination of their creators. In any fiction there are threads of reality, woven by the power of the imagination in bizarre patterns. In general, such samples are not something true.
There is an opinion that misconceptions are annoying accidents. However, they are constantly accompanying the history of knowledge as a payment of humanity for bold attempts to learn more than the level of available practice and the possibility of theoretical thought allow. The human mind, striving for the truth, inevitably falls into various kinds of errors, due to both its historical limitations and claims exceeding its real capabilities. Misconceptions are also due to the relative freedom of choice of ways of cognition, the complexity of the problems to be solved, the desire to implement ideas in the situation of incomplete information. Here it is appropriate to recall the words of IV Goethe: "Who searches, is forced to wander." In the scientific knowledge of error, they act as false theories, the falsity of which is revealed by the course of the further development of science. This was, for example, the geocentric theory of Ptolemy or the Newtonian treatment of space and time.
So, there are gnosiological, psychological, and social grounds. But they should be distinguished from a lie as a moral and psychological phenomenon. To go deeper into the truth and judge it, it is necessary to know both about delusion and about lies. Falsehood is a distortion of the actual state of affairs, aimed at introducing someone into deception. Falsehood can be both a fiction about what was not, and a deliberate concealment of what was. The source of the lie can also be logically wrong thinking. Wisdom says that all falsehoods are sick with meaninglessness.
Scientific knowledge by its very nature is impossible without the clash of different, sometimes opposing views, the struggle of beliefs, opinions, discussions, just as it is impossible and without errors, mistakes. The problem of mistakes is far from the last in science. In research practice, mistakes are often made in the course of observation, measurement, calculations, judgments, estimates. As G. Galilei said, it is simply impossible to avoid mistakes during observation. However, there is no basis for a pessimistic view of knowledge as a continuous wander in the darkness of fictions. As long as a person strives ever ahead and forward, IV Goethe said, he wanders. Delusions in the spider are gradually overcome, and the truth is breaking its way to the light.
The above is true mainly in relation to natural science cognition. The situation in social cognition is a little different, and much more complicated. Such a science as history, which due to the inaccessibility, uniqueness of its subject - the past, the researcher's dependence on the availability of sources, their completeness , reliability, etc., as well as a very close connection with the ideology and politics of undemocratic and, especially, despotic regimes, are most prone to distorting the truth, to errors, mistakes and deliberate deception. On this basis, she was repeatedly subjected to far from flattering reviews, she was even denied the title of science. Particularly prone to errors history in the hands of the anti-popular government, which forces scientists to deliberately abandon the truth in favor of the interests of those in power. Although every chronicler is morally responsible to society for the reliability of the facts, but it is well known that in any field of knowledge there is no such falsification as in the public domain. DI Pisarev wrote that in history there were many obliging bears, who were very assiduously beating flies on the forehead of sleeping humanity with heavy cobblestones. People often kept silent about the dangerous truth and said a profitable lie; to please their interests, passions, vices, secret designs, they burned archives, killed witnesses, forged documents, etc. Therefore, in social cognition, the facts require a particularly careful approach, their critical analysis. When studying social phenomena, it is necessary to take not individual facts, but the whole of the totality of the question under consideration. Otherwise, there is inevitably a suspicion, and quite legitimate, that instead of the objective connection and interdependence of historical phenomena in their whole, the "subjective concoction" to justify, perhaps, the "dirty business". The bottom of the facts must be brought to the disclosure of truth and the objective reasons that caused this or that social event. Therefore deliberately false "studies" must be subjected to ethically-oriented control by society.
The true man of science must have the courage to express truth and controversial positions, if he does not doubt their credibility. Time rehabilitates before the court of scientific thought any doctrine, if it is true.
So, from a moral point of view, delusion is a bona fide untruth, and deception is an unfair lie, although there are many examples of when the "lie for salvation" acts as something morally justified: the scout is forced by the logic of his work to live in the atmosphere of all sorts of legends; the doctor with a consolatory goal is forced, based on noble motives, often hide the dangerous situation of the patient; the government during the war is compelled to resort to the admission of various kinds of fictitious information with a view to retaining the morale of the people and troops in the spirit of vivacity and confidence, and the like.
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