Military Communism in the industry - Economic history...

Military Communism in the industry

In the industry military communism meant complete nationalization, centralization of management and non-economic methods of management .

In 1918, the matter ended in the nationalization of large enterprises. But with the increase in the devastation of large enterprises stopped working, their specific weight decreased, and in 1920 they accounted for only 1% of all registered enterprises; they were only occupied by a quarter of the country's workers.

In late 1920, the nationalization of medium and small enterprises was announced. In the hands of the state passed all the enterprises with a mechanical engine, which employed more than five workers, and establishments without a mechanical engine, on which more than 10 workers worked. Thus, not only capitalist enterprises were subject to nationalization, but also those that Lenin attributed to the precapitalist stage of simple commodity production.

For what? In these enterprises themselves, as production units, the state did not need. Such an act of nationalization is explained by the fact that the mass of small enterprises created anarchy, did not yield to state accounting and absorbed the resources necessary for state industry. Obviously, after all, the desire for universal accounting and control has played a decisive role, for "all work according to one common plan on common land, in common factories and plants and according to the general order," as Lenin demanded. As a result of nationalization, small institutions were usually closed. However, the authorities had many other concerns, and before the nationalization of small institutions the case often did not reach.

A different manifestation of the policy of "war communism" in the industry there was strict centralization of management, or the system of "glavkisma" . Glavkism, because all enterprises of each industry were subordinated to their branch head - the department of the Supreme Council of National Economy. But the main thing was not that the enterprises were subordinated to their central bodies, but that all economic relations were terminated and administrative methods were used. The enterprises received from the state free of charge everything necessary for production, they handed over the finished products free of charge. Free, i.e. without cash payments. Profitability, the cost of production now did not matter. An important element of war communism was the universal labor service , proclaimed as a law in 1918, with the advent of a new Labor Code. Labor was now viewed not as a commodity to be sold, but as a form of service to the state, as a compulsory service. Freedom of Labor was declared a bourgeois prejudice. The bourgeois element declared wages. "... Under the system of the proletarian dictatorship," wrote N.I. Bukharin, "a worker receives a labor ration, and not a wage."

These theoretical positions were realized in the January decree of 1920, which regulated the mobilization of the population for various kinds of labor obligations - fuel, road, construction , etc. Only for logging in the first half of 1920 was mobilized 6 million people, while the workers at the time were about one million. At first it was assumed that the forced piles would only be applied to the "bourgeois elements," and for the workers, class consciousness and revolutionary enthusiasm would be the stimulus to work. However, this hypothesis soon had to be abandoned. LD Trotsky said: "We are going to work socially-standardized on the basis of the economic plan, obligatory for the whole country, i.e. compulsory for each employee. This is the basis of socialism. " At that time Trotsky was one of the main leaders of the country and expressed the party's general views.

Evasion from labor service was considered desertion and punished according to the laws of wartime. In 1918, for violators were organized labor camps, and for the guilty of anti-Soviet activities - the concentration camps. The labor army was also a variant of labor service: with the cessation of hostilities military formations did not dissolve, but turned into "labor", performing the most urgent work that did not require special qualification.

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