The Global Ecological Problem - The Basics of Economic Theory

Global Environmental Problem

It consists in huge difficulties to overcome the environmental crisis , that arose on our planet because of the destructive impact on the nature of people. In vain, Rousseau in his time bitterly remarked: "Everything comes out good from the hands of the Creator, everything degenerates in the hands of man" (18-201). And it is not in vain in modern Western scientists already in the course of such an eerie term, as terracid (from Latin terra - earth + caedere - killing), meaning the process of gradual destruction of the planet Earth by man.

As the main manifestations of the environmental crisis (Figure 8.30) are most commonly called, such as pollution of the air and water basins of the Earth and a growing avalanche of waste (as a result, ozone holes "," acid rains ", poisoned lakes and rivers, whole zones of ecological disaster with mass diseases of people, etc.); global climate changes threatening in the future with a climatic catastrophe (general warming, weather instability, drought, melting polar ice caps, raising the level of the oceans, flooding huge areas, fertile lands); destruction and extinction of forests, impoverishment of animal and plant life; (about 8.5 million hectares per year) and the deterioration of soil fertility due to overexploitation, erosion, poisoning, salinization, water logging, desertification, absorption by cities, dumps, industry, etc.

Fig. 8.30. Main manifestations and ways of solving environmental problems

Among the ways solutions to environmental problems can be identified the following four. (1) Develop and implement a coherent international environmental program, including, for example, the creation of a special fund for environmental protection measures of global importance (for example, to stop deforestation of tropical forests, improve the quality of drinking water, etc.); Establishment of international environmental standards and control for the state of the natural environment (with the right to inspect any country); the introduction of international restrictive quotas (norms) for each country for harmful emissions into the atmosphere (which already applies to ozone-depleting gases, and countries can sell each other their unused quotas); the declaration of the natural environment as the property of all mankind and the introduction into the international practice of the principle "polluter pays" (through the "green tax" on harmful emissions, special taxes on the use of the oceans, Antarctica, near-Earth space, etc.).

(2) Establishment of sound environmental legislation that provides for high responsibility for its violation and effective incentives, encourage environmental protection (for example, the introduction of special "environmental taxes" on the application of the most "dirty" technologies and, conversely, tax incentives for environmentally friendly production) .

(3) The transition to a new, environmentally oriented technological culture, which implies: rational approaches to use Natural resources and the application of the most "clean" and the least rare of them; concern for the reproduction of renewable resources (meadows, forests, soils, fish, etc.); introduction of waste-free (or low-waste) resource- and environmentally-friendly technologies and environmental protection systems; selective collection of garbage and its processing instead of toxic combustion or storage in landfills.

(4) Constant, complete and truthful informing people about the state of the external environment and the products they consume [by, for example, marking goods with special ecological signs (like United States) ; Free from chlorine )], as well as the formation of an ecological outlook in society.

thematic pictures

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