NEW TIME AND NEW INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, New time...

NEW TIME AND NEW INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

New time in the history of mankind

An attempt to divide world history into the history of the Ancient World, the history of the Middle Ages and the New History was first undertaken in the Renaissance. For humanist historians, the criterion of novelty was the overcoming of the "darkness of the Middle Ages", a return to the humanistic sources of ancient civilization.

However, among contemporary historians there is no unity regarding the periodization of the New Age. The author of this work proceeds from the fact that the New Time began with the era of the Great Geographical Discoveries and ended with the first shot of the First World War. For during these three centuries - from 1492 to 1918 - Europe was dominant in world affairs, more precisely, the great powers of Europe.

The essence of the tremendous social changes that have occurred in Europe after 1500, can be reduced to the following:

1. Europe and European civilization as a whole have turned into an economic, technological and military-political leader of the world community. If in the Middle Ages Europe was a deaf, poor, underdeveloped, ignorant and backward backwater (especially, compared to such economic and cultural leaders of the world as Byzantium, the Islamic world, India and China), then in the 19th century, Europe has come far ahead. And if in 1750, according to the level of its economic and technological development, the most developed countries of the East were not inferior to the most developed countries of the West, then by the end of the 19th century, Europe's superiority in per capita production was multiple (Table 1.1-1.2).

Table 1.1

Share in world industrial production,%

End of Table. 1.1

Region

Year

1750

1800

1830

I860

1880

1900

Europe

23.2

28.1

34.2

53.2

61.3

62.0

Including: United Kingdom

1.9

4.3

9.5

19.9

22.9

18.5

Region

Year

1750

1800

1830

1860

1880

1900

The Habsburg Empire

2.9

3.2

3.2

4.2

4.4

4.7

France

4.0

4.2

5.2

7.9

7.8

6.8

Germany

2.9

3.5

3.5

4.9

8.5

13.2

Italy

2.4

2.5

2.3

2.5

2.5

2.5

Russia

5.0

5.6

5.6

7.0

7.6

8.8

US

0.1

0.8

2.4

7.2

14.7

23.6

Japan

3.8

3.5

2.8

2.6

2.4

2.4

Third World

73.0

67.7

60.5

36.6

20.9

11.0

Including: China

32.8

33.3

29.8

19.7

12.5

6.2

India

24.5

19.7

17.6

8.6

2.8

1.7

Table 1.2

Per capita level of industrialization,

% relative to Great Britain in 1900

Region

Year

1750

1800

1830

1860

1880

1900

Europe

8

8

11

16

24

35

Including: United Kingdom

10

16

25

64

87

100

The Habsburg Empire

7

7

8

11

15

23

France

9

9

12

20

28

39

Germany

8

8

9

15

25

52

Italy

8

8

8

10

12

17

Russia

6

6

7

8

10

15

US

4

9

14

21

38

69

Japan

7

7

7

7

9

12

Third World

7

6

6

4

3

2

Including: China

8

6

6

4

4

3

India

7

6

6

3

2

1

2. This breakthrough of Europe towards world domination was achieved (in contrast to previous eras) on a fundamentally new technological basis and was associated with an industrial coup that occurred initially in the West European and North American regions. It was the machine that predetermined the economic and military predominance of Europeans over other civilizations.

3. European civilization began to show after 1400 an unprecedented craving for the expansion of its institutions and values ​​on a world scale. Thus, European civilization became the first world civilization, creating a world market and turning non-European nations into its colonies or semi-colonies.

4. The leading position of Europe would be impossible without the grandiose social changes in Western Europe and North America. In these regions of the world the bourgeoisie took power for the first time, gradually pushing back the traditional social strata (nobility, peasantry, clergy) into the background. The social upheaval in Europe of the New Time was accompanied by a coup in the mind, the emergence of a new type of personality, a bourgeois personality. Perhaps, it was the bourgeois personality - the liberated, enterprising, initiative - that became the main reason for all the successes of Europe and North America in the last 500 years. The most vivid manifestation of this ideological upheaval was the European reformation. And these changes covered all aspects of human life, not just the economy. They embraced both foreign and military policy, which became bourgeois.

A new era was the rise of the principle of national interest, which was the basis for foreign policy planning. In the preceding historical epochs there were no nations; by itself, there was no national interest. The concept of national interest, formulated in the rational categories of "realism" and "balance of forces", marked a decisive break with medieval views on international relations, according to which the state interest (understood as a dynastic interest in accordance with the well-known formula "the state is me") was to be subordinated to some lofty goals , like the "release of the Holy Sepulcher." All these changes, of course, were associated with a change in the social structure of the leading European powers: the national bourgeoisie that came to power aspired to put not only domestic but also foreign policy in its service.

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