Typologies of organizational business cultures
If the typologies of national business cultures are important for understanding the nature of national and regional political cultures, the experience gained in the theory and practice of the formation and development of organizational (corporate) cultures is no less important for understanding political culture, since it is about the experience of effective management specific institutions and organizations. Political activity is also carried out in organizations, specific government bodies, non-profit non-governmental organizations (NGOs), parties, etc., which, in essence, are the same organizational forms of normative-value systems as companies, firms.
The concepts of organizational (corporate) cultures make it possible to specify the characteristics of political culture at the level of specific organizations and institutions, to operationalize the analysis, and to orient it toward the dynamics of changes. We are talking about a system of formal and informal rules and norms of activity, customs and traditions, individual and group interests, peculiarities of leadership behavior and style, indicators of satisfaction with working conditions, level of mutual cooperation, identification of workers with the organization, prospects for its development. As a result, the organization, the company appears as a culture - in a literal sense, when all the characteristics of any culture are applicable to it: norms and values, traditions, epic (heroes and legends), folklore, rituals, sacred dates and places, subcultures. This ensures, on the one hand, the stability and recognition of the organization in commodity markets and the labor market, and on the other hand, the organization acts as a motivational factor of development and competitiveness.
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American researcher U. Ouchi identified three main types of organizational cultures:
1) market a culture that is characterized by the dominance of value relationships and profit orientation;
2) bureaucratic culture based on the dominance of regulations, rules and procedures;
3) clan a culture that complements previous ones. Its basis is the internal values of the organization. The source of power is tradition.
The typology of C. Handy is widely spread, which deduces four main types of culture in organizations:
1. Culture of power (Zeus). Its significant moment is personal power, the source of which is the possession of resources. Organizations that profess such a culture have a rigid structure, a high degree of centralization of management, and few rules and procedures. They are authoritarian, suppress the initiative of workers, exercise strict control over everything. Success is predetermined by the qualifications of the manager and the timeliness of identifying problems. All this allows you to quickly make and implement solutions in an environment of intense competition. In such firms, the selection of personnel is carried out primarily with an orientation toward people who are similar in their way of thinking to the boss and are able to work independently and efficiently. The structure of such organizations resembles a cobweb in the center of which is a strong spider, controlling all threads.
2. Role culture (Apollo) is characteristic of organizations that are not primarily focused on the individual, but on the position, function, workplace, norms and rules, the role of the worker and the role not encouraged. It is a bureaucratic culture based on a system of rules and instructions, characterized by a clear specialization, distribution of roles, rights, duties, responsibilities, specialization of participants, in short, all those that provide administrative success. It is inflexible, hinders innovation, makes changes difficult. While the firm is stable on the market, the role culture guarantees safety and predictability. As a rule, organizations with a focus on role culture are competitive in a stable environment. Such a management culture is characteristic of large corporations and state institutions.
3 . The culture of personality (Dionysus) is associated with the emotional beginning, is based on creative values and unites people to achieve their personal goals. Decisions here are made on the basis of coordination, therefore, the task of the government is coordination. Organizations of this type are often created by such specialists as lawyers, architects, consultants. Typically, this type of culture can be found within a large organization, when a certain group of specialists has a strong need to assert their rights for a particular type of relationship (for example, programmers, researchers).
4. Target culture, tasks (Athens) is adapted to management in extreme conditions and constantly changing situations, so the focus here is on the speed with which problems are solved. It is based on cooperation, collective development of ideas, common values. The power rests here on competence, professionalism and the possession of information. This culture is inherent in combining in one command carriers of different functions, different levels of competence and subordination of hierarchical power to the process of developing or performing a task. All activities in such firms are focused on projects, work tasks. Creation of temporary creative groups for solving specific problems, developing projects, allows everyone to realize their creative potential and simultaneously allows working in several groups on several projects, i.e. move from one group to another. The organization of a culture of goals is effective in high competition, requiring instantaneous reaction. This is a transitional type of management culture and is able to grow into one of the previous ones. It is characteristic of project or venture organizations.
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To the typology of Handy is close no less common typology of discrimination of cultures:
1) praxeological culture - the definition of goals, the choice of directions of activity is seen as a means of increasing economic efficiency, increasing profits (close to the culture of the goal);
2) entrepreneurial culture - business activity is a means of attracting resources for further development (close to the culture of the individual);
3) custodial (patriarchal) culture, where the means of achieving unity is the fulfillment of decisions made by management, their explanation (close to the culture of power);
4) a bureaucratic culture in which unity is provided through the development of formal decision-making, evaluation, control, etc. procedures. (close to the role culture).
The typology, which also contains the four main types of corporate cultures, was proposed by FA Morozov. These are:
1. Clock mechanism & quot ;, when the organization operates on the basis of a system of rules, procedures and standards, the observance of which must guarantee its effectiveness, i.e. such a culture is actually bureaucratic (role-playing). Co-workers usually do not support informal relationships. Intra-firm gossip is not encouraged. Everyone knows and does only what he is supposed to do. Bureaucratic culture severely restricts a person. Along with this, the organization works like a clock with a well-established mechanism. In the process of selecting employees, the company takes into account not so much the professional abilities of candidates, but their willingness to precisely execute job descriptions. At the same time, they are practically guaranteed a gradual career growth. But overly agile workers will have to be patient - it is necessary to restrain their ambitions and restrict initiative, which in this type of culture is simply irrelevant. Carefully selected specialists, perfectly performing the regulated duties, are most often unable to cope with unforeseen difficulties. The habit of following specific job descriptions will not allow them to act effectively in an unconventional situation.
2. Cult of personality is formed most often in companies where the manager is also its owner. In addition to administrative power, he is also endowed with clearly expressed leadership qualities. It's actually a "power" culture of power (Zeus). As a rule, around such a leader a special circle of close associates is formed, with the help of which he exercises leadership. But the last word always remains with the owner. Employees in a company with such a culture may be less restricted in their actions than in a bureaucratic organization, are more initiative and even participate in decisions. But behind them is more stringent control. In addition to formal fulfillment of duties from people, loyalty to their boss is required, and this factor is often decisive. In such firms, informal relations between employees, joint celebrations and communication, which go beyond the office, are usually accepted. However, the service subordination is always respected, and the leader's rights are undeniable. Power corporate culture is preferred by companies in the formative stage, as it promotes mobility and easy adaptation to any changes in the market. However, in this case, the mobility of a firm depends primarily on the personal and professional qualities of its leader. Another drawback of organizations with power The type of corporate culture is that it limits the growth of the enterprise. Often managers in such companies do not want to share power. And it is impossible to effectively manage a large enterprise alone. Management specialists believe that the limit for authoritarian leadership is 60 people. In addition, the desire to retain power in the same hands deprives the company's staff of visible prospects for career growth. Therefore, in enterprises with force culture, there is always a high turnover of staff, especially among specialists of the lower and middle level.
3. First among equals ", when in a team, as a rule, professionals with a high level of professionalism and personal responsibility work. In principle, such workers can do without a leader at all. Personal corporate culture provides tremendous opportunities both to satisfy ambitions, and to realize personal interests and initiatives of employees. It is based on the ability of experts to negotiate among themselves and their independence from each other. As a rule, the activities of employees are not controlled "from above", but only coordinated. Subordinates have a great deal of autonomy and can work on a flexible schedule. The functions of each employee are not fixed in the instructions and are sometimes not even determined by his formal position. The main criterion of effectiveness in such companies is the professional and precise fulfillment of the obligations assumed. At the same time, in companies with personal corporate culture, it is usually cultivated artel, community, comradely relations between employees. For this type of culture, the hierarchy of relations is characteristic: the leader occupies the position of the first among equals, and all decisions are taken collectively. Ordinary employees are directly involved in this and are always aware of management plans. Personal corporate culture is infrequent. Typically, it is typical for organizations whose activities require a creative (creative) approach: in law firms, consulting firms, architectural bureaus, design studios. Sometimes it is not formed in the organization itself, but in some of its departments or subdivisions. However, with all the advantages, there is a lack of such a culture - the possibility of anarchy, clashes of employees' ambitions, inconsistency of their actions. For this reason, it can not exist for long. Most often in such an organization the leader stands out, and the culture passes into the "power".
4. Unified command - is actually the target culture. It is formed in firms whose activities are aimed at solving specific problems, for example, in companies operating in a dynamic market. Organizations with a targeted corporate culture tend to have a rather blurry structure. And yet the duties of each employee here are clearly limited and painted, each responsible for his plot. The work of employees is tightly controlled, and sometimes a reporting system is used. The leader in such organizations usually performs the functions of the coordinator and does not emphasize his leadership. As in firms with a personal culture, decisions are made collectively and employees have access to all internal information. The main focus of the companies with the target culture is paid to the professionalism of the employees, since collegial methods of work have been adopted here. Co-workers often support informal relations. The target culture is effective when the situational requirements of the market are determinative in the activity of the organization.
One of the most popular typologies offered by Cameron and R. Quinn in the book "Diagnosis and Change in Organizational Culture" 1. Their studies of the "framework of competing values" led to the conclusion that there are also four types of organizational cultures:
1. Clan the organizational culture is characteristic of a very friendly workplace, where people have a lot in common. Organizations (units) are similar to large families. Leaders or heads of organizations are perceived as educators and even as parents. The organization is held together through devotion and tradition. The emphasis is placed on the long-term benefit of personal development, the great importance of team cohesion and moral climate is attached. Success is defined as a good feeling for consumers and caring for people. In this type of organizational culture, the organization encourages brigade work, people's participation in business and consent. The leader in the clan culture performs two roles: 1) an assistant who settles conflicts and is engaged in the search for consensus on the basis of "clan" norms and rules, involving people in decision-making and problem solving; 2) a mentor, caring and showing participation in the problems of individuals.
2. Adhocratic (from Latin ad hoc - to the case) is an organizational culture in which the ability to resolve specific problems, finding new solutions. In this culture, the fundamental role is played by the ability to create. Such an organization is a dynamic entrepreneurial and creative place of work. For the sake of common success, workers are prepared for personal sacrifices and risks. Leaders are considered innovators and people willing to take risks. The binding essence of the organization is devotion to experimentation and innovation. The need for activity on the front line is stressed. In the long term, the organization focuses on growth and the acquisition of new resources. Success means the production and provision of unique new products or services, the desire to lead the market. The organization encourages personal initiative, creativity and freedom. A leader in such an organization performs two roles: 1) an innovator who anticipates change and a better future; 2) a visionary who emphasizes the possibilities and assesses the probabilities of the results.
3. Hierarchical the organizational culture is a culture of organization very formalized and structured, in which the order and organization of the process are placed above all. People follow official centralized rules, and all processes are formalized. It is often called the bureaucratic type of organizational culture. What people do is controlled by procedures. Leaders are proud that they are rationally thinking coordinators and organizers. The enterprise unites formal rules and official policy. Employee management involves concerns about job security and long-term predictability. This type of organizational culture dominates in the organizations focused on results and the market. The main goal of organizing this type of culture is to fulfill the task. People are purposeful and compete with each other. Leaders are firm leaders and tough competitors. They are unshakable and demanding. The organization ties together the emphasis on the desire to win. Reputation and success are the subject of common concern. The style of the organization is a rigidly held line for competitiveness. A leader in a hierarchical culture fulfills the roles: 1) an instructor, a well-informed expert; 2) the coordinator performing the current monitoring of the organization of work.
4. Market is a culture in which the main goal is to achieve a goal based on competition. Rivalry is the main motivational mechanism: people are purposeful and compete with each other. Leaders are demanding leaders and tough competitors. The organization ties together the emphasis on the desire to win. Reputation and success are a common concern. The focus of the long-term strategy is adjusted to competitive actions, the solution of tasks and achievement of measurable goals. Success is defined in terms of penetration of markets and increase in market share. Important competitive pricing and leadership in the market. The style of the organization is a rigidly held line for competitiveness. Leader in market culture: 1) a fighter, aggressive and determined in achieving goals in the fight against competitors; 2) task-oriented, decision-oriented; 3) an overseer that ensures the implementation of decisions taken.
An important element of the organizational culture of the organization is the culture of attitudes towards women (both holding executive positions and ordinary performers), determining their position. In this regard, the team of authors, headed by D. D. Vachugov, formulated the following types of cultures:
1) culture of a gentleman's club - the culture of polite, humane, civilized people, within the framework of which male managers, based on paternalistic positions, gently hold women on certain roles, not allowing them to rise higher;
2) "barracks culture", despotic and peculiar to bureaucratic organizations with many levels of management, where women occupy the lower levels, and are treated roughly and contemptuously;
3) culture of the sports dressing room & quot ;, in which men build interpersonal relationships based on specific male interests, show open disregard for women and in their social circle admit;
4) "equality culture", denying discrimination, but simultaneously not seeing the real differences between the sexes, ignoring the feminine essence, family responsibilities of women, and therefore requiring them to perform the same tasks as men;
5) "the culture of false defense of women", in which the idea of equality based on universal values is replaced by myths about equality: there is discrimination in the form of patronage, when women are forcibly attracted to active work, constantly reminding them that they are victims who need support;
6) the "clever macho culture", does not take into account gender differences, which focuses on smart and energetic people who can compete in high competition economic efficiency of the firm.
The analysis of different views on the classification of organizational cultures allows us to conclude that practically all typologies of organizational cultures contain a stable structure of four basic pure types most successfully characterized by C. Handy, C. Cameron and R. Quinn. As a result, these types can be considered as some axes on which the profiles of cultures of specific organizations are built: actual, desired, projected (Figure 1.2).
Experience shows that a specific business culture is formed depending on the type of activity, specific tasks, the maturity of management and the team.
Fig. 1.2. Building the culture profiles of specific organizations
As a rule, at the stage of the organization's origin in management, the culture of power prevails; The stage of growth is characterized by role culture; stage of stable development - the culture of the task or culture of the individual; in the crisis, emphasis is placed on the culture of power.
This device is quite promising in the analysis and design of political cultures, not only at the micro level of specific organizations and institutions. These tools can be useful in macro analysis of political cultures.
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