Between the years 1933 and 1939 the Nazi regime in Germany grew incredibly fast. Hitler entered the National Socialists cabinet in January 1933, and two months after this, Hitler had strengthen his political power by supposedly, totally legal means. To be able to consolidate their power as a solid political party, the Nazis were determined to convince people of the value with their regime. One of the most direct means to convince the German people of the worthiness of the National-Socialist ideas was through propaganda that attracts the emotions and feelings of the German people after the crisis they had to experience after the First World War. On this paper I will attempt to identify the methods employed by the Nazi party to be able to acquire the attention of the folks also to establish the National-Socialism as the main party in Germany, as well as the importance that the Propaganda had in the results of the National Socialist regime and of the actions taken by them through the years of the Second World War. To achieve this I am going to analyze Germany's situation in the time of 1933 to 1939, where in fact the National Socialist regime achieved its main aim -to become the key political power in the country- using propaganda as the main way to obtain the peoples attention that could lead them and would give support to all or any the path of actions which were taken during the many years of the war. I am going to analyse, for example, the importance of various legislative and administrative changes made by Hitler, the achievement of economical recovery as something that was used to appeal to the honour of the German people who have been devastated by the consequences of the First World War, the creation of the feeling of fear through the use of imagery and language to control the people and exactly how every ideal of the National-Socialist party originated through propaganda.
B. Summary of Evidence
Although there are other very critical indicators to attribute the consolidation of power of the National Socialists, propaganda was definitely one of the significant reasons of this. Even though it is incredibly difficult to gauge the exact extent where propaganda influenced the Nazi consolidation, the huge propaganda campaign where Hitler was portrayed as the savoir of Germany, had a massive impact and influence on the German people.
The master propagandist of the Nazi regime, Joseph Goebbels, was convinced that the Ministry had the mission of obtaining "mobilization and mind of spirit on Germany". In 1930 he became the headmaster of the propaganda division of the National-Socialist party, in this position he built the foundation of the mass manipulation through propaganda. When Hitler finally achieved power he was named Minister of Popular Illustration and Propaganda and it was then when he became determined to change the ideals and your brain of the German people to act towards the Nazi party. Because of the idea of changing the German peoples mind and also other National Socialist thoughts, Joseph Goebbels created a propaganda campaign in which Hitler was portrayed as a great man that helped the economical recovery of Germany -that was an important appeal to the German people taking into consideration the economic crisis that they had to assume following the First World War-; he was portrayed as Germany's saviour. Goebbels, in his attempt, to consolidate Nazi power and convince German visitors to support them, used the technique of total propaganda. Quite simply, the government had control over the media. Goebbels took control of the newspapers, and even though their writing style didn't change, most the newspapers promoted fascism and Nazi German nationalism.
Thanks to Goebbels work and the impact of the full total propaganda technique, he was undoubtedly in charge of the rise of Hitler to the power and too the centre of the political situation in Germany. His position as the Minister of public enlightenment and propaganda, gave him an absolute control of the mass communications media like the press, radio, cinema among others. The culture created by the propaganda technique implemented and utilized by Goebbels created an totally new era of mass manipulation. After they tested the potency of the ministry of propaganda, so when the Nazi party was convinced about the importance of mass manipulation through media, they made a decision to split the Ministry into seven different departments. After they had taken over most Germany, the propaganda ministry was put into seven different departments that included Radio, Film, Theater, Music, Literature, Visual Arts and, of course, Propaganda. Every aspect of the life span in Germany was permeated by the Ministry, the re-education and the mobilization of mind and spirit of the German People stopped being just a great of the National-Socialist party and became an undeniable fact and ways to proceed to accomplish a Nazi state with Nazi ideals supported by all the German people.
As the Nazi party was trying to convince German society that the National Socialist regime was the best for them, they were also taking part of the World War II. It was vitally important to convince individuals who fighting was necessary for Germany to stay stable. Propaganda played a highly important role in the confidence of German people that supported the war, the ministry of propaganda made sure that the moral of the German people and of the soldiers fighting the war stayed focused on the ideals of the Nazi party. Most of Nazi German propaganda contains material sustaining the wartime effort. Besides this, Hitler and the bigger Nazi leaders encouraged racism and wished to start the extermination of races that they considered inferior. Although there have been already some unhappiness's between the German Jews and other Germans, it was still necessary to convince the German population that action against them was necessary. The Nazis used the thought of the "perfect and pure race" that was planted into the peoples mind and that could lead to atrocities like the Holocaust.
They used posters stating facts like this to assure that the thought of the "pure race" would become important to every German person: "The Aryan race is tall, long legged, slim. The race is narrow-faced, with a narrow forehead, a narrow highbuilt nose and a lower jaw and prominent chin, the skin is rosy bright and the blood shines through. . . . the hair is smooth, straight or wavy - possibly curly in childhood. The colour is blond. " Naturally, to convey the priority of the German Maser Race, the propaganda ministry made folks think that one of why Germany was defeated in the First World War (and that could lead to all the monetary problems and the shattering of the German spirit) was because the German race had become impure when the Aryans started marrying non-Aryans. This implied that, in order to make Germany a strong country again also to make the people strong and confident, the Nazi party had to guarantee the purity of the Aryan race. The use of the term pure was fundamental in Nazi propaganda.
"Propaganda must not investigate the truth objectively and, in so far as it is favourable to the other side, present it according to the theoretical rules of justice; yet it must present only that aspect of the truth which is favourable to its side. (. . . ) The receptive powers of the masses are extremely restricted, and their understanding is feeble. Alternatively, they quickly forget. Such being the situation, all-effectivepropaganda must be confined to a few bare essentials and those must be expressed so far as possible in stereotyped formulas. " This might explain why the use of simple words and formulas that appeal to the thoughts of the audience were effectively found in Nazi propaganda.
These kind of statements, compiled by Hitler himself, prove that not everything said by the government was truth and that they were trying their finest to convince people of the "truths" expressed in stereotyped formulas and repeated incessantly though every type of media communication owned by the Ministry of propaganda. It also shows Hitler's main intention by introducing Nazi propaganda, that was to convince everyone that the National Socialist regime was the best for Germany. Even though there were lots of types of propaganda, all of them ended in the same conclusion and had the same intention of persuading people to support the National Socialist regime ideals - and everything implied by them-.
Some historians think that the main reason the Nazi Germany regime remained in place was, in fact, because of the fear factor created by the Nazi propaganda and the language used to appeal to the people. Language became, through the use of propaganda, a tool to manipulate and also to lead society to obey without question the federal government and the radical ideas the Nazi party had. Organizations like the SS would work to wipe out anyone who didn't agree with the actual Nazi propaganda said. Although the fear factor influenced and was observed in a large majority, it affected a small minority. Thanks to this fear people would stop talking about issues related to the National Socialist regime, they stopped disagreeing in what the Nazi party was endeavoring to impose. We're able to say that both fear and propaganda were the key factors that could have helped to consolidate the Nazi power. Nazis justified their actions by using propaganda, the manipulation of language and images, the feelings and fears of the folks and the thought of the pure race. An important exemplory case of this simple truth is what's known as THE NIGHT TIME of the Long Knives, an opertation that took place on June 30th 1934 where the SS executed some political leader who were opposing to the Nazi ideas and Hitler himself. The SS executed seventy men on charges of treason. Many of them were members of the SA also called Sturmabteilung (Storm Section) or Brownshirts. This organization was openly up against the National Socialist regime. This group of executions obviously caused more fear in society and decreased their rebellion intentions.
C. Evaluation of Sources.
Source 1:Randall L. Bytwerk, " Bending Spines: The Propagandas of Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic".
This source's main purpose is to show why the Nazi propagandas had such an easy effect and exactly how it impacted society from that point. It examines the range of techniques employed by Nazis. It talks about how exactly people were embraced by the propaganda; it describes the way the propaganda was in charge of basically every media of communication that is exactly what made it a very good source for this paper. However the book also says that the effect of the propaganda did not last much and it explains that in ways, Nazi propaganda failed since they expected more of their propaganda than what it actually could do. This is one of the weaknesses if the source since this is a contradiction from what I am wanting to prove which is that the Nazi propaganda had an enormous effect in the outcome of the Nazi regime.
Source 2:Kallis, Aristotle A. Nazi Propaganda and the next World War.
This is a superb source since it analyses every aspect of the effects of the Nazi propaganda, it explains how society was damaged because of it. It shows different types of perspectives, as the first source this one also says that the result of the Nazi propaganda was not as big or as shocking as it is normally thought. It explains that the National Socialists were expecting propaganda to have a greater effect that what it had, however it had an integral part of the influence in the results of the Nazi regime.
Anyone who produced, distributed, broadcasted, published or sold any form of media or press were required to first join one of the propaganda ministry departments and follow all the publishing rules that they had. Hence, with no ministry license to apply their businesses, all artists, writers, publishers, producers and directors cannot work in their field. Along with these guidelines, they raised the prohibition of all Jewish newspaper and media. Because of the abolition of every anti-Nazi publications and media in general, public felt that the overall mood of all media was pro-Nazi. German people knew that disagreeing might lead to a calamity, the terror within German society at the Nazi time of government was in the end what caused the consolidation of power in the Nazi Germany. The Nazi party conducted some symbolic acts including the ceremonially book burning in 1933 that was proclaimed as an action resistant to the un-German spirit that wished to end with all the current Jewish intellectualism by using a purge by fire, all of this was proclaimed by the Press and Propaganda Ofiice of the Deutsche Studentenschaff (Student Association). Without a doubt, the propaganda employed by the Nazis was influential on the actions of the German society, the popularity of the propaganda found in ht theatre and in the films was evident if we consider the increase of movie viewers between 1933 (1 million viewers) and 1942 (250 million viewers). The moral and confidence of the German people was increased as well through propaganda and even through architecture. All the arts were associated with the propagation of Nazi ideals. The significant number of movie viewers was because of Goebbels' proven fact that movies should not be overly propagandists and must be entertaining. However as atlanta divorce attorneys other media, the best goal was to influence people and drag them into Nazism. Goebbels considered that the correct propaganda to be used in the films should be using dramas centred on historical and influential figures.
There were also some very straightforward war films that contained clear pro-German and pro- nationalistic messages, other films that performed a slightly different propaganda function, such as 1936 Olympia, which showed that Germany could placed on a magnificent show for the Olympics. The huge success of the films during this time period conveyed to the public the sense that Nazi regime was a regime of modern progress, breaking barriers in technology, convincing public that remaining with the Nazi party would be the only solution in order to advance.
The Olympic Games of 1936 were handed to Berlin before the Nazis came to power, and Hitler considered this as the perfect possibility to demonstrate the globe how efficient the Nazi Germany was. The Berlin Olympic Games were also the perfect scenario for the Nazis to prove the "power of the Master Race". The Nazis gave a superb performance in the utilization of radio for the reporters. Twenty transmitting vans were put at the disposition of the foreign media along with 300 microphones. The radio broadcasts at the Olympics were given in 28 different languages. The director of NBC in the us congratulated the Nazis because of this service; this is a great triumph for the general public Entertainment and Propaganda MinistryRadio could also be considered as one of the biggest and most convincing propaganda. Including the 'Volksempfanger'; in 1933, 4. 5 million German houses had broadcast access and were hearing it. This is thanks to the availability of inexpensive radios. A factor of success of the air was its personal nature, as the cinema was experienced with others, the radio had the power for the Nazi party to speak to people in their own house, and also they could share it with the public thanks to the speakers in the streets.
The National Socialist regime held absolute control over Germany between the years 1933 and 1939. The Nazis dominated every part of the everyday activity of ordinary people and made it almost impossible for folks to escape the influence of Nazism in their family, their work, and even thinking. Despite the fact that the Nazis did bring some prosperity to Germany in financial ways at that time, the entire Nazi regime was based on terror and it was centred on the transformation of Germany that could only be completed by affecting the lives and thoughts of most, if not all of the German citizens. A lot of the Nazi ideals were mainly promoted through films, radio, theatres and newspapers handled by the National Socialist regime. There is no way of avoiding it; it was spread across every form of entertainment and media of communication. A substantial percentage of Germans seem pleased with Nazi control, however, those who weren't, were harshly punished by either the Gestapo or the SS. The propaganda used in the wartime had an enormous effect in people causing lots of German Citizens to join the National Socialist ideas and helping the Nazis to gain control over almost every German citizen.
F. Sources and Word Count
Word Count: 1994
Bytwerk, Randall L. Bending Spines: The Propagandas of Nazi Germany and the German Democratic Republic. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2004.
Kallis, Aristotle A. Nazi Propaganda and the next World War. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.
Nazi and East German Propaganda, Guide Page, German Propaganda archive.
The Holocaust History Project, < http://www. holocaust-history. org/>
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