Impact of English Colonization on the Gulf

1. Introduction

The term 'colonization' can be used to make reference to the active pass on of politics and economic vitality over an area, for a country which has occupied the positioning, and which is generally far before it, in conditions of armed forces and technical prowess. It could be identified by the activity of foreign nationals to the location, or by an official seizure of power over the spot, either via politics or armed service means.

This process can be prompted by many different things - a swollen inhabitants, economic upheaval, cultural disturbances, and even religious conflicts within the region being colonized. Yet, all of these factors can be linked with expansionism, intrusive humanitarianism and the goals associated with nationwide development, to at least some degree. The work of colonization can be led by the government, or it can be an independent effort, helmed by big business. However, before the process can be began, every native people are first necessary to be restrained and designed, or adapted to the traditions of the invaders; or else, an agreement has to be drawn up, via the responsibility of any treaty or recognized alliance.

The English Empire was made up of the states, domains, provinces, dependencies and terrains that have been governed and handled by Great Britain. It offers its origins in the overseas trading routes created by Britain, between the 16th and 18th century. At its maximum, it was the largest overseas kingdom ever before seen and, for greater than a hundred years, it was the principal world innovator. By the end of 1922, Britain manipulated more than 458 million people around a fifth of the global inhabitants. The empire itself extended across more than 33, 000, 000 km squared, which is around a quarter of the area of the planet. Unsurprisingly ten, its politics, legal and ethnic norms travelled far and wide. At its most powerful point, the adage 'the empire which the sun never models' was frequently used to make reference to the Uk Empire, as its huge surface area meant that the sun would always be glowing in at least one of its newly received domains (see Exhibit 1). [1]

1. 1 Definition of colonization

According to the Collins British Dictionary, the term colonialism can be defined as 'the strategies and polices of a power, in spreading influence over vulnerable populations or parts. ' The Merriam-Webster Dictionary actually provides no less than four definitions, such as 'something agent of a colony, ' and 'impact by one ability, over a prone region or populace. '[2]

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy utilizes the word 'colonialism' to make reference to 'the practice of Western european invasion, and the get spread around of political affect, across the world - this includes america, Australia and portions of Asia and Africa. ' It explores the disparity between colonialism and imperialism, saying that 'as due to the intricacy of constantly separating the two words, this definition will refer to colonialism as a wide-spread notion, relating to the process of European politics control, from the 16th to the 20th century, which culminated in the nationwide emancipation protests of the sixties. '[3]

1. 2 Objectives of colonization

1. 2. 1 Political Purpose

The political purpose can be assimilate in improve the colonial position in competition for advanced positions on the ladder of the international causes, in order to develop its effect in the international community and make it better to control the international resolutions and directed to its advantage. [4]

1. 2. 2 Economic Purpose

Colonization can be to have new source for recycleables that country needed, the Europe commercial revolution that occurred in the late eighteenth century and early on nineteenth century make a need for new source of recycleables for the new industrials.

The commercial revolution created a wild manufacturing movement, propagate across large factories in the colonial expresses and that resulted in have surplus in the goods, and colonization permit them to have new markets to sell their products.

Get cheap labor, the colonial powers worked to move millions of individuals from areas colonized to the areas, in order to hire low-wage or trade them as slaves. At the moment, many of the industrial countries transfer a few of its factories to expanding countries, to have advantage of cheap labor in these countries.

Secure vehicles routes was one of many purpose for colonization, many countries resort to colonize new areas to secure transport routes to different areas, in order to protect property and keep maintaining its vital passions, and use commercial channels. [5]

1. 2. 3 Culture Purpose

When you go through the linguistic map of the world, we find that the colonial language to replace the local terminology in the colonial countries; Most of the Spanish colonies in the us, the Latin used Spanish as an official language, and British is the state language of a number of British colonies such as India and Nigeria, and Southern African, as People from france is the official terms in the French colonies, such as Chad, Mali, Senegal, and the Portuguese dialect is the state dialect of Mozambique as a former Portuguese colony.

If we apply it to the second language in several countries, we find that they colonized the words, as is the situation with English in Iraq, Egypt and Jordan, which is consistent with what the world Tritscka said of this language is the foundation of the flourishing trade, as the nation will not lose its colonies associated words and culture, even if interrupted politics association. [6]

1. 2. 3 Religious Purpose

Colonization has been associated with the presence of lots of promotions and missions consignments spiritual missionary, many of them have succeeded in evangelizing industries of the populace of the colonies, and was the most visible circumstances of success in this field in African countries such as South Sudan and southern Nigeria.

1. 3 Types of Colonization

It is common for scholars to produce a clear difference between two meticulously related manifestations of colonialism. 'Settler colonialism' refers to mass motions, usually powered by religious, political or financial motives.

'Exploitation colonialism' didn't involve as much migrants, and instead located focus on the availability of goods for international trade, usually at the centre of the empire. This latter definition relates to the utilization of trading channels, as well as bigger domains where migrant colonists would control almost all of the political and monetary logistics. Yet, they would still lean seriously on native belongings for labour and goods. Right before the culmination, and eventual eradication, of the slave trade, if native labour had not been accessible, it was common for slave personnel to be delivered to America, by migrant colonists from either Britain, France, Holland, Spain or Portugal.

For case, a plantation based mostly arrangement would be an exploitation colony. Yet, invading forces would take benefit of both types of colonialism, in a variety of different domains, contingent on what type of cultural, monetary and topographic conditions confronted them.

'Surrogate colonialism' is utilized to make reference to a colonisation venture, funded by a dominant power, in which the majority of the migrants are not native to this power.

'Internal colonialism' pertains to imbalanced organisational affect, shared between regions of a nation condition - the primary motivator of manipulation is the federal government itself.

2. Colonization in the Arabian Gulf

The unique located area of the area was the cause of the greed of others and a direct motivates these to attacks; to be able to control the tactical location, and undermine its specialist in this vital region. Arabian Gulf experienced multiple levels of the international presence began to level control of the Portuguese, followed by the Dutch profession stage then level English colonization.

Portuguese ambition to extend started in the fifteenth century, that ambition stemming from the desire to explore, and the desire to multiply Christianity surrounding the world. This expansion began in the Indian Ocean during their travels to west coastline of Africa and southern deserts; and to be able to get the goods and slaves.

The land of Portuguese in 1625 following the Battle of Bandar Abbas had a big role in paving just how for the Dutch and the United kingdom to enter the region, and very quickly its became a Dutch trading place at Bandar Abbas that was the most active and successful areas; where bought and sold sugars and spice and Indian fabric, copper, iron, have concluded with Shah Abbas I in 1623 a deal for the silk trade. With the beginning of the seventeenth century, the Dutch became prominent force in the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Gulf.

The Arabian Gulf was a struggle field for European issues, specifically the British isles and French, however in 1810 the British isles navy campaign were able to strike the island of Mauritius, which was the beginning of the French problems against the English rule; allowing them to become the only dominating force in your community.

British's started out in this period to conduct research in the ports, and in the pearl bankers; to identify the type of the region, which has increased the denominators activity in monitoring the British boats in the Indian Ocean (1811- 1818), Until they surely got to a distance of about 60 km from Bombay, which prompted the English to develop programs to destroy the power of denominators and weaken their union; because they see in them several pirates, sending a advertising campaign led by General Kiir to Ras Al Khaimah, as a result, the British required control complete control over Arabian Gulf.

Login started with the Gulf sheikhs in the serenity treaties, the best known: Treaty (Standard Peace 1820). Since that time, British placed a naval drive in Ras Al Khaimah, and then force in Qeshm; and to oversee treaties agreed upon.

3. The impact of British isles colonization in the Arabian Gulf

Any colonization will leave effect on the colonist, its can be positive or negative and to be more sensible it usually will be combination between them and the British isles colonization is not a different, the Gulf area which was one of United kingdom colonists suffered politically, economically, and socially and in the same time they benefit from that colonization.

The English colonization on that time ended a lot of wars and battles between tribes in Gulf and secure the region which gave people there the feeling of safety, English colonization sorted out the trading between the gulf and India and get rid of the pirates by agreements with the gulf presidents at that time generally with Oman and United Arabic Emirates, on other palm British Colonialism improved the physical map of the Gulf and drew the boundaries and appointed market leaders over the Gulf countries. After WWII, the English were in Palestine, Iraq, Arabian Gulf, the Indian Subcontinent, Malaya, and Brunei. It changed the educational, legal, and economic institutions. United kingdom colonialism changed Muslim self-rule under Islamic Rules, which have been in existence from the time of the Prophet Muhammad, by their European lows.

The Muslim world's decades of long have a problem with Western colonial rule was followed by authoritarian regimes installed by Western european powers. The lack of stable states has led many to ask whether there is something about Islam that is antithetical to civil society and rule of legislations. The answer to this question is placed more ever sold and politics than in religious beliefs. Modern Muslim areas are just several ages old plus they were carved out by Western european powers to serve Western interests.

British placed the edges for Iraq and Kuwait and created a fresh entity called Jordan. Such arbitrary edges fed ethnic, regional, and religious issues like the Lebanese Civil War between Christians and Muslims, the profession of Lebanon by Syria, the Gulf War, which resulted from Saddam Hussein's say to Kuwaiti place, and the Israel-Palestinian discord.

One of the biggest borders issues that stile exist the main one between United Arabic Emirates and Saudi Arabia, certainly the origin of the border problems because of the maps that drawn by the United kingdom to the region but also Saudi Arabia greed that contain borders issues with all Gulf countries contribute take that problem to other level.

The dispute between Saudi Arabia and the UAE, has started after the freedom of the United Arab Emirates in the first seventies of the previous century. The dispute was about the Buraimi Oasis, that was at the same time a subject of dispute between Abu Dhabi and Oman, which finished up sharing the region. And from the logic, Saudi Arabia imposed on the UAE unfair package when lowered their requirements in the AL-Ain area and desert Dhafra corresponding to Jeddah arrangement to the boundary with the UAE in 1974, attached to it by knowing the UAE, and received in return some areas. That contract separated UAE and Qatar, and present Saudi Arabia 80% of the essential oil that was between the countries (see Display 2).

We can see on that example the way the British colonization even after it withdrew from the region produced contrasting appreciations, it supply the choice for Saudi Arabia over UAE and a lot of oil that participate in Saudi Arabia today could be belong to UAE or at least could be joint field between the two countries.

Also these edges segregated UAE from Qatar which supply the benefits to Saudi Arabia again, before the British colonization there is productive trade between UAE and Qatar put their edges but after the new borders establish they had to cross Saudi Arabia to attain each other which lead to weakness this investments and in the same time benefit Saudi Arabia (see Display 3).

Political and economical models were borrowed from the West to displace the Islamic politics and monetary systems after independence from colonial rulers in the mid-twentieth century, creating overcrowded places lacking public support systems, high unemployment, federal corruption, and growing the distance between wealthy and poor people. Rather than resulting in a better standard of living, Westernization resulted in the breakdown of traditional family, spiritual, and social worth. Many Muslims blame Traditional western models of political and economical development as the sources of moral drop and religious malaise.

On other hand, the Uk colonization period strengthens the bonds between Gulf countries and american countries, and these relationships still existing until today, and we can plainly see it in the trading products between countries and how Gulf countries count on Europe and epically on British isles to import whole lot of goods. On other level we can see the influence of that colonization on the politics system, where all Gulf countries market leaders are from the royal family rather than elected by people, on sociable and culture level the United kingdom colonization had a huge influence on the individuals in the gulf region, because of most other factors we discussed earlier and how close the Gulf become from British the people began to gain some habits from English culture. For example most people in Gulf and other colonies with was colonized by British like Egypt and Iraq started out consuming tea and contemplate it necessary part of their daily life, which is actually an English behavior. Another culture effect we noticed is the words influence, lot of your words that we used today are taken from English dialect for example in Kuwait we say the "tire" while it's in Arabic dialect "Etar" and there are whole lot of other wards. However the language affect didn't stop there.

In recent years, the subjects of global English, and language structured imperialism, have been explored in great depth - not least in the Arabian Gulf, where Arabic is still the key tongue, even if it's little by little becoming less used and less common, particularly in regards to the proportion of speaker systems. In many ways, the English terms is now a representation of the internationalization and change, caused by the hydrocarbon income which support many of the Gulf countries. As these countries try to grow their economies, retain skilled specialists, and put together natives forever on the international stage, the English language has turned into a much discussed issue in conversations on faith, politics and contemporary society. In fact, it is regularly held in charge of the decay of Islamic lifestyles.

Whilst the prominence of the English language certainly comes with disadvantages, a higher percentage of young workers seem to comprehend its benefits, and are much more willing to utilize it within business, regulation and science industries. According to many of the people, poor British skills are one of the primary limitations on the introduction of private industries.

According to the study of Karmani, which has monitored the development of the English words learning sector, in economic and social conditions, in Arabic countries - these motivations, linking back to the fifties and seventies are entrenched in the political world, and also have become reciprocally aligned. [7]

A great deal of employees in the Gulf result from domains that used to be controlled by the United kingdom Empire (regions like India and Pakistan), so the English language goes on to have an important function for many. It can function as female 'lingua franca, ' specifically when it comes to disparate emigrant populations, and between Arabs and emigrants. In many of these countries, the emigrant people accounts for more than 81% (CIA, 2011). [8]

A collective anxiety, over the Gulf nations, relates to the decay and possible abandonment of Arabic, as a written and verbal tongue. Actually, there are several people, over the Emirati and the Arabic locations, who are extremely concerned about the impact that this kind of linguistic change will be effecting on the integrity of the Arabic spoken in the UAE.

4. Conclusion

Colonialism is a practice of domination, that involves political and financial control over the colonist areas. Economic Instability, politics weakness, revolutions and other factors can be the reason of colonization. The purpose of colonization can be increase its electric power and influence globally, find a fresh source of row materials, widens its culture over the world, and extend its religious. Arabian Gulf gone throw many colonialisms, the English colonization was the last one which handled the area to attain specific goals one of these to secure the trades that have proven with India.

Although that, Arabian gulf received freedom for a while now but we still can easily see that the impact of that colonization exist on several levels: political, economic, and communal. Here we must discuss that the impact of the colonization is not necessarily negative there are a few positive influences, like the economics romance that existing between Uk and most Gulf countries and also the improvement in education process in these countries. On other side colonization a while can create desire for one country over other country, like the dispute between Saudi Arabia and UAE over planks and how Saudi Arabia took over the oil areas.

Exhibit 1

British Empire

Exhibit 2

UAE-Saudi Arabia Boarder

Exhibit 3

UAE-Qatar Boards

[1] "Colonization. " The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. . 2014. Encyclopedia. com. (November 17, 2014).

[2] "Colonialism". Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. 2010. Retrieved 5 Apr 2010.

[3] Margaret Kohn (2006). "Colonialism". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford University. Retrieved 5 April 2010.

[4] Anton Mata (1993). "Tarak Al-Estiamar in Arabian Gulf". Beirut. Dar Al-Jeal.

[5] Anton Mata (1993). "Tarak Al-Estiamar in Arabian Gulf". Beirut. Dar Al-Jeal.

[6] Jameil Baiton (2002). "Tarek Al-arab Al-hadeth". Beirut. Dar Al-Amal.

[7] Karmani, S. (2005). Petro-Linguistics: The Appearing Nexus Between Oil, English, and Islam. Journal of

Language, Personality and Education, 4. 2, 87-102.

[8] CIA Factbook. (2011). United Arab Emirates. 18 Nov. Web. https://www. cia. gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/geos/ae. html

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