A Review On Becks Theory Psychology Essay

Beck's theory expresses that folks with dysfunctional behaviour are likely to show raises in depressed disposition following the event of negative occasions. From your cognitive point of view, we can say that depression is brought on by one's thinking. Someone with dysfunctional attitudes tends to think negatively toward themselves. Whenever a negative event occurs which relates to see your face, it causes the mental poison again and again which can lead to depression.

Beck assumed that the cognitive symptoms of depression actually precede the affective and ambiance symptoms of depression, rather than vice versa. Beck's main discussion was that depression was instituted by one's view of oneself, instead of one having a poor view of oneself anticipated to depression. For instance, Abela and D'Alessandro's (2002) found that the student's negative views about their future highly controlled the connection between dysfunctional behaviour and the upsurge in depressed mood. The research clearly supported Beck's claim that those vulnerable for depression scheduled to dysfunctional attitudes who didn't enter their college of choice then doubted their futures, and these thoughts lead to symptoms of depression.

The other cause of depression will be a person's interpersonal relationship with their area and the people around them. Hammen and Brennan (2001) discovered that 13% of the sons and 23. 6 % of the daughters who had been depressed had stressed out mothers as compared to 3. 9% of the sons and 15. 9% of the daughters who were stressed out lacked a stressed out mother. From social perspective, we see that the child becomes depressed due to interpersonal relationship with his or her mom which shows how the sociable environment around someone can affect the behavior or thinking of the individual.

The depressed adolescents of stressed out moms were also more likely to evidence dysfunctional cognitions about their communal selves and worlds. (Hammen & Brennan, 2001, p. 8) This clearly contradicts beck's argument that depression is cause by dysfunctional cognition however, not vice versa. Hammen and Brennan (2001) mentioned that children gets depressed because of the interpersonal relationship with the mothers which then later lead them into dysfunctional cognitions. Whereas, beck areas that dysfunctional attitudes comes first which in turn later on lead the individual into depression.

Another contradiction of these two concepts is the fact one claims that depression is brought on by the internal thinking without the influence of someone else and on the contrary, the other is cause by the encompassing people and exactly how they react.

Second Section

Cognitive Theory

Individuals with dysfunctional attitudes are likely to show boosts in depressed spirits following the incident of negative occasions which is stated in Beck`s theory. We are able to say that depression is brought on by one's thinking from the cognitive perspective. Someone with dysfunctional behaviour tends to think negatively toward themselves. When a negative event turns up, it sets off the negative thoughts again and again which can lead to depression.

The relationship between dysfunctional attitudes and boosts in depressed feeling following the event of negative events is caused by negative views of the future. Beck's cognitive theory of depression has made a huge body of empirical research. Central to Beck's theory is the construct of schemas(Beck's (1967, 1983). Beck defines schemas as stored bodies of knowledge that impact the encoding, comprehension and retrieval of information. The content and organization of different individuals' schemas vary relating with their particular experiences. Once turned on, depressogenic schemas provide access to a sophisticated system of negative themes and cognitions that will lead to 'negative cognitive triad'(Beck's (1967, 1983). Beck defines the negative cognitive triad as a poor view of the do it yourself, the entire world and the near future. Beck hypothesizes that the negative cognitive triad is a sufficient cause of depression and will start showing some depressive symptoms such as deficits in affective, motivational, behavioural and physiological working(John R. Z. Abela, 2000). Beck also says that we now have three main dysfunctional notion themes or templates (or "schemas") that dominate frustrated people's thinking (Natalie Staats Reiss, Ph. D, 2007)
  • I am defective or limited,
  • All of my encounters bring about defeats or failures, and
  • The future is hopeless.

Together, these three themes or templates are described as the Negative Cognitive Triad. When these beliefs can be found in someone's cognition, depression is more than likely to occur.

Stressed out people will have a tendency to demonstrate selective focus on information, which suits their negative objectives, and selective inattention to information that contradicts those objectives. Faced with a largely positive performance review, despondent people will have the ability to find and target in on the one negative comment that maintains the review from being perfect. They tend to magnify the importance and meanings in the negative events, and minimize the value and meanings in positive incidents. Usually this kind of situation may happen quite unconsciously which is will maintain a frustrated person's main negative schemas when confronted with contradictory evidence, and they will remain sense hopeless about the future even when the data suggests that things are certain to get better.

Beck hypothesizes that depressogenic schemas are typically latent in individuals which susceptible to depression and must be triggered by relevant stressors or event to be able to exert their affect on information control(Beck's (1967, 1983). Inside the absence of such aversive life happenings, depressogenic schemas continue to be inactive, nor exert an influence on patterns of thinking.

Predicated on the research done by a group of researchers from Canada, (John R. Z. Abela and David U. D'Alessandro, Department of Mindset, McGill College or university), they used a short-term longitudinal design where individuals' dysfunctional behaviour were assessed before the occurrence of a negative event. The method they have used was 136 senior high school seniors deciding on the University or college of Pennsylvania completed steps of depressed ambiance and dysfunctional behaviour 1-8 weeks before obtaining their admissions decision and denoted as (Time 1). The examination of dysfunctional attitudes was preceded by way of a primary task designed to activate latent depressogenic schemas in every participants. Participants also discovered on thier despondent disposition, negative views of the self, and negative views into the future soon after they received their admissions decision and denoted as (Time 2) and four times later as (Time 3).

The results out of this research was regular with the element of Beck's theory. The participants who are dysfunctional behaviour predicted boosts in depressed ambiance immediately following a negative admissions final result (Time 2). In addition, in line with the the causal mediation component of the idea, for negative result students, the relationship between dysfunctional attitudes and raises in depressed spirits was triggered by negative views into the future. Contrary to predictions, however, this romantic relationship was not mediated by negative views of the self. In addition, opposite to predictions, dysfunctional attitudes did not anticipate enduring depressed mood after a poor result (Time 3).

Some studies have found no support for the diathesis-stress element of the theory. For example, by using a psychiatric in-patient sample, Persons and Rao (1985) reported that irrational values (Ellis, 1962) didn't interact with negative happenings to predict increases in depressive symptoms seven calendar months after discharge. In the same way, using a three-month prospective design, Barnett and Gotlib (1988a, 1990) reported that dysfunctional behaviour did not connect to negative happenings to predict increases in depressive symptoms.

Social Theory

The early starting point of depression commonly recalled by depressed individuals. (Burke, Burke, Regier, & Rae, 1990) The increasing rate of depression in youngsters is significantly impairing and this implies recurrence and continuity into adulthood. One of the best empirically reinforced predictors of depression in children is having a depressed mother.

There is absolutely no single unifying social model of depression but instead various empirical and theoretical innovations that emphasize interpersonal cognitions and behaviours. For the mother, a key attribute of the interpersonal perspective is a particular emphasis on the dysfunctional, abnormal or unhealthy social behavior or relationship within a group transaction between your person and the public environment. (Joiner & Coyne, 1999) Despondent individuals often function terribly in marriages and interactions with family members. (Barnett & Gotlib, 1988; Rao, Hammen, & Daley, 1999; Weissman & Paykel, 1974) They may indulge maladaptively, adapting poorly to a predicament with others in ways that donate to the incident of interpersonal stressful life incidents, which eventually might cause further depression. (Davila, Hammen, Burge, Pa-ley, & Daley, 1995; Hammen, 1991)

Depressed people are often reliant on others and seek confidence in ways that distance others. (Barnett & Gotlib, 1988; Joiner & Metalsky, 1995) They often times overvalue romantic relationships as resources of self-worth but could also have bought negative beliefs about the availableness and trustworthiness of others. Subsequently, prolong course of depression may be anticipated to negative behaviour by family members. (Hooley, Orley, & Teasdale, 1986; Hooley & Teasdale, 1989; Keitner et al. , 1995)

Although many of the social deficiencies noted in depressed individuals may be depressive state dependent, a number of the cited studies have mentioned enduring difficulties even though the individual is not presently depressed. Obviously not all depressive disorders are functionally linked to maladaptive interpersonal romantic relationships; but research strongly suggests the importance of the contribution of sociable behaviors and beliefs to advertise depression and its recurrence.

The acquisition of dysfunctional schemas about the self among others, and the zero social skills, may placed the stage for vulnerability to depression, particularly when stressors are experienced that deplete or test the child's sense of price, competence, and interpersonal relatedness.

The frustrated children of frustrated mothers were also highly more likely to have elevated rates of interpersonal and conflict life happenings, reflecting at least partly their relative issues in negotiating social relationships. The frustrated adolescents of stressed out moms were also much more likely to possess dysfunctional cognitions about their communal selves and world. They much more likely compared to stressed out children of non depressed women to record fewer friends and interpersonal activities.

In my opinion, communal vulnerabilities of offspring of depressed women may contribute to earlier onset of depressive disorders and worse professional medical features. Although biological and genetic factors may heighten risk for early on onset, acquisition of interpersonal vulnerabilities may also result in early on experiences of depressive disorders.

The homogeneity permits evaluation of variations between groups that are not mistaken with age effects. Moreover, young adolescence is a developmental period during which sociable activities and alliances outside of the family take on increasing importance.

One of the most noticeable differences among the groups occurred in interpersonal performing. Indicators of ongoing communal role performance uncovered more impaired working in communal domains, with an especially marked problem, and in addition, in interactions with family for depressed children of depressed mothers. The depressed children of despondent mothers were also highly likely to have increased rates of interpersonal and conflict life occurrences, reflecting at least in part their relative troubles in negotiating social relationships. The stressed out adolescents of stressed out mothers were also more likely to research dysfunctional cognitions about their sociable selves and worlds. These were a lot more likely than frustrated children of non stressed out women to survey fewer friends and interpersonal activities.

However, It really is interesting that stressed out children of stressed out mothers were more positive about their passionate appeal than stressed out children of non stressed out women, possibly indicating early on involvement or higher. (Gotlib, Lewinsohn, & Seeley, 1998)

An important implication of subgroup dissimilarities may be that the frustrated youth of depressed women, because of interpersonal troubles, will have preceding and more recurrent recurrences of depression, which could result from stressors associated with incapability to adjust to social demand. In addition, it could be speculated that youth interpersonal difficulties might trigger adult social troubles, including dysfunctional marital connections and even transmission of depression to their own offspring.

From the analysis, it is interesting that there is a inclination for a higher male proportion among the outcome of depressed women, while most of the frustrated children of non frustrated women were girls.

In conclusion, the results are steady with the point of view that depression among children of stressed out mothers is especially likely to happen in the context of issues in their interpersonal skills and perceptions of others towards them. The youths' complications may symbolize a mechanism of intergenerational transmitting of depression that results in part from the parents' own interpersonal difficulties obtained in their child years family environments. Finally, extreme treatment of the public dysfunctions must be taken.

Third Section

Depression / Major depressive disorder

Depression is a medical illness that involves the mind and body. It also known as major depression, major depressive disorder and specialized medical depression which is by an all-encompassing low spirits accompanied by low self-esteem, and lack of interest or pleasure in normally pleasant activities. . It influences patients' feel, think and respond which lead to a variety of mental and physical problems. Major depression is a disabling condition which adversely impacts someone's family, work or school life, sleeping and diet plan, and health and wellness.

Subtypes

There are five further subtypes of major depressive disorder called specifiers to nothing the length, seriousness and presence of psychotic features
  • Melancholic depression - lack of pleasure in most or all activities, failing of reactivity to enjoyable stimuli, a quality of depressed feeling more pronounced than that of grief or reduction, a worsening of symptoms in the morning hours, early morning waking, psychomotor retardation, unnecessary weight or excessive guilt.
  • Atypical depression - mood reactivity (paradoxical anhedonia) and positivity, significant weight gain or increased hunger (comfort eating), increased sleep or sleepiness (hypersomnia), a sensation of heaviness in limbs known as leaden paralysis, and significant social impairment because of hypersensitivity to identified interpersonal rejection.
  • Catatonic depression - a rare and severe form of major depression concerning disturbances of motor behavior and other symptoms. The person is mute and almost stuporose, and either remains immobile or displays purposeless or even bizarre movements. Catatonic symptoms also take place in schizophrenia or in manic episodes, or may be caused by neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
  • Postpartum depression (Mild mental and behavioral disorders from the puerperium) refers to the intense, suffered and sometimes disabling depression experienced by women after giving birth.
  • Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a kind of depression in which depressive episodes come on in the autumn or winter, and take care of in springtime. The diagnosis is made if at least two episodes have took place in colder weeks with none at other times, more than a two-year period or longer.

Causes of Depression

Depression does not have any single cause; often, it results from a blend of things. Whatever its cause, depression is not only a mind-set. It really is related to physical changes in the mind, and connected to a imbalance of a type of chemical that bears signals in your brain and nerves. These chemicals are called neurotransmitters. A few of others factors involved in depression are

Family background

Genetics play an important part in depression. It can run in family members for generations.

Trauma and stress

Things like financial problems, the breakup of an relationship, or the death of a loved one may bring on depression. People can become frustrated after any unwelcome change in life patterns, like starting a fresh job, graduating from college, or getting married can cause a depressive episode. [1]

Pessimistic personality

People who've low self-esteem and a poor outlook are at higher threat of becoming depressed. These traits may actually be triggered by low-level depression.

Physical conditions

Serious medical conditions like heart disease, cancer, and HIV can donate to depression, partly because of the physical weakness and stress they bring on. Depression can make medical ailments worse, since it weakens the immune system and can make pain harder to keep. In some cases, depression can be induced by medications used to treat medical conditions. For instance, some medications that are being used to treat high blood circulation pressure, tumor, seizures, extreme pain, and achieve contraception can lead to depression. Even some psychiatric medications like some sleep products and medications to take care of alcoholism and stress and anxiety can donate to the development of depression.

Lack of neurochemicals

the depressive disorder is apparently associated with improved brain serotonin and norepinephrine systems. The different types of schizophrenia are associated with an imbalance of dopamine (too much) and serotonin (poorly governed) in certain areas of brain. Both neurochemicals (serotonin and norepinephrine) are reduced despondent people.

Other mental disorders

Anxiety disorders, eating disorders, schizophrenia, persistent deprivation in infancy, physical or intimate misuse, clusters of certain personality attributes, and inadequate ways of coping (maladaptive coping mechanisms) can increase the frequency and severeness of depressive disorders

Symptoms

  • Feelings of sadness or unhappiness
  • Irritability or disappointment, even over small matters
  • Loss appealing or pleasure in normal activities
  • Insomnia or high sleeping
  • Changes in appetite - depression often causes decreased appetite and weight reduction, but in some individuals it triggers increased food cravings and weight gain
  • Agitation or restlessness - for example, pacing, hand-wringing or an lack of ability to be seated still
  • Fatigue, tiredness and lack of energy - even small tasks may seem to be to require a great deal of effort
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, fixating on earlier failures or blaming yourself when things aren't going right
  • Slowed in considering, speaking or body actions, focusing, making decisions and keeping in mind things
  • Frequent thoughts of fatality, dying or suicide
  • Unexplained physical problems, such as returning pain or headaches

Treatments and Suggestion

Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy can be delivered to individuals or organizations by mental health professionals including psychotherapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, professional medical social staff, counselors, and psychiatric nurses. Talking the[2]rapies help patients gain insight into their problems and solve them through verbal give-and-take with the therapist. It reduces the recurrence of depression even after it's been terminated or changed by infrequent booster trainings.

Types of therapy:

Cognitive behavioral remedy (CBT)

can help to identify and change thought and action patterns that donate to depression. People who are depressed tend to think negatively. Therefore, cognitive behavioral remedy teaches patients how to recognize and challenge the mental poison and helps to obtain more satisfaction and rewards through their own activities.

Interpersonal therapy

looks at how depression can be linked to troubled psychological romantic relationships. Interpersonal therapists concentrate on the patient's disturbed personal connections that both cause and exacerbate the depression.

Psychodynamic therapy

links depression to traumas and conflicts that took place earlier in your daily life, especially during years as a child. It can be a short-term treatment, though it is usually a longer process. The therapists focus on resolving the patient's inside subconscious conflicts that are typically thought to be rooted in youth. Long-term psychodynamic treatments are particularly important if there appears to be a lifelong history and pattern of inadequate means of coping (maladaptive coping mechanisms) in negative or self-injurious behavior.

Group therapy

allows you and other folks with depression-or people who have the same conditions that contributed to your depression-to meet as well as a therapist and talk about experiences.

Antidepressants

Antidepressants are procedure by the assistance of medication to treat the physical talk about in the mind. Psychologists identified that when certain chemicals in the mind (such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine) are out of balance, depression can occur. People with chronic depression might need to take medication indefinitely to avoid relapse. Hence, antidepressants can be help to increase the symptoms of depression by delivering those chemicals back into balance.

Some of the major types of antidepressants are mentioned below

NDRIs (Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors) are a type of antidepressant that increases the degrees of norepinephrine and dopamine by blocking their "reuptake" in the brain. Buproprion is really the only antidepressant within this category of drugs approved by the FDA. Unwanted effects may include weight loss, loss of cravings, and dry mouth area.

SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) such as sertraline, escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, and citalopram are a widely used kind of antidepressant. SSRIs increase serotonin in the brain by blocking "serotonin reuptake" in the mind. These kinds of antidepressants can cause intimate side results.

SNRIs (Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors) work in much the same way as an SSRI. SNRIs obstruct the "reuptake" of both serotonin and norepinephrine. SNRIs could also cause side effects similar to SSRIs.

Electroconvulsive therapy

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a procedure whereby pulses of electricity are delivered through the brain via two electrodes, usually one on each temple, to generate a seizure while the patient is under a brief basic anaesthetic. ECT can have a quicker impact than antidepressant therapy and therefore may be the treating choice in emergencies such as catatonic depression where the patient has discontinued eating and taking in, or where a patient is severely suicidal. ECT pays to for several patients, particularly for individuals who cannot take or have not responded to lots of antidepressants. ECT often works well where trials of a number of antidepressant medications do not provide sufficient comfort of symptoms. This procedure probably works, as previously mentioned, by an enormous neurochemical release in the mind because of the handled seizure.

Opinion

For me, there is more than one way to skin area a mongoose. There are a lot of difference perspectives to check out the sources of depression. There could be environmental, biological, internal, physical, or some happenings that cause individual to depress. It really is quite difficult to differentiate between a depressed people from a normal one. Hence, by looking at the symptom of depression is a great way to diagnose the condition.

Therefore, we will discussion about how depress symptom appears and may contributes to occurrence of depression. Initially, we opt for cognitive theory as a procedure for explain how people get frustrated which can be apply generally. Cognitive theory declaring that depression results from maladaptive, faulty, or irrational cognitions taking the form of distorted thoughts and judgments. Despondent people think differently than non-depressed people, and it is this difference in thinking that causes them to become depressed. For instance, depressed people tend to view themselves, their environment, and the future negative, pessimistic light. As a result, depressed people have a tendency to misinterpret facts in negative ways and blame themselves for just about any misfortune that occurs. This negative thinking and view style functions as a poor bias; it creates it possible for depressed people to see situation to be much worse than they really are, and escalates the risk that such people will establish depressive symptoms in response to difficult situations.

The depressive symptoms are also the cognitive approach to the depressive specific where all the symptoms are causes by themselves. For instance, they have emotions of sadness or unhappiness, irri[3]tability or frustration, even over small matters, lack of interest or pleasure in normal activities, insomnia or high sleeping as well as others. All the symptoms are from patient brain. They have a tendency to dismiss positive information, pay exaggerated focus on negative information, also to engage in overgeneralization, which occurs when people believe that because some local and isolated event has proved badly, this means that all situations will come out badly. For instance, depressed people may refuse to see that they have at least a few friends, or that they have got some successes across their life-time (ignoring the positive). Or they could dwell on and blow out of percentage the hurts they have got endured (exaggerating the negative). Other stressed out people may persuade themselves that nobody adores them or they always mess up (overgeneralizing).

In addition, cognitive theory also advised that people are designed by the relationships between their behaviours, thoughts, and environmental situations. Each part in the puzzle can and will affect the shape of the other portions. Human behavior ends up being largely a product of learning, which might happen vicariously, as well as through immediate experience. Frustrated people's self-concepts are different from non-depressed people's self-concepts as we mention earlier. They tend to hold themselves solely accountable for bad things in their lives and are packed with self-recrimination and self-blame. In addition they tend to have low levels of self-efficacy (a person's belief that they are capable of influencing their situation). Therefore, they have a tendency to establish their personal goals too high, and then flunk of achieving them. Repeated inability further reduces thoughts of self-efficacy and causes depression.

Nevertheless, of all the factors which by the frustrated individual, they may be just feeling aimed toward themselves for blaming the failure and uselessness. However, there also a cause to major depression which is showing up of a tense event prompted their depressive episode. The nerve-racking event initiate depressive shows create changes in the brain's chemistry which make it more likely that future shows of depression will establish. The stressful encounters often take away someone's sense of control and can cause great emotional upheaval and pain. Sometimes, even positive life changes such as engaged and getting married or having a baby can bring about a depressive episode.

Another procedure of theory that i personally think is vital triggers to depression is by using Behavioral Ideas. Behavioral Ideas uses key points of learning theory to clarify human action. Therefore, according to behavioral theory, we can say that dysfunctional or unhelpful behavior such as depression is discovered.

A person can be depressing because of the environmental stressors cause them to get a low rate of positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement occurs when people fo something they find pleasurable and satisfying. When people acquire positive reinforcement, it wills escalates the chances that folks will repeat the sorts of actions they took that led them to get that reinforcement. Quite simply, people will tend to repeat those actions that get strengthened. However, stressed out people do not know how to handle the fact that they are no longer getting positive reinforcements like they were before. A frustrated people typically have a heightened status of self-awareness about their insufficient coping skills that often leads them to self-criticize and withdraw from other people. For example, a guy who may have been fired from his job and encounters difficulty finding a new job might become frustrated.

In a nutshell, depression can be cause by the internal and external factors such as people's thoughts, perceptions, assessments, expectations, behavior and so forth. Hence, at the last part of our own research on depression, we'd made an equation for the sources of depression by using cognitive theory and behavioral theory which applicable for most of the depression cases.

DEPRESSION = f stressful events, dysfunctional attitudes, depressive symptoms, loss of positive reinforcement

[1] Subtypes of Depression-Diagnosis and Medical Management. Retrieved March 6, 2010 from http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC1237582/

[2] Understanding Depression Indications, Symptoms, Causes and Help. Retrieved March 6 2010 from http://www. helpguide. org/mental/depression_signs_types_diagnosis_treatment. htm

[3] Depression Treatment. Remedy, Medication, and Lifestyle Changes THAT WILL HELP. Retrieved from 6 March 2010 from http://www. helpguide. org/mental/treatment_strategies_depression. htm

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)