Academic, Applied and Practical Psychology
Psychology as a science and practice was differentiated into academic, applied and practical directions, which is typical for all developed spiders. This differentiation of scientific activity is due to the difference in goals, means, methods and results of scientific activity in one direction or another, as well as the realization of scientific knowledge.
Academic studies are aimed at studying unrecognized objects and their properties. This is an area of mysterious phenomena of nature, society, man and endless forms of life and the existence of matter. Cognitive activity is the main content of academic science. No specificity is disclosed in the relevant purposes, means, methods and results (products).
The purpose of academic psychology is knowledge of the laws of mental activity , the formation and functioning of psychology This knowledge for the sake of knowledge. The pragmatic motives of a person professionally engaged in academic psychology, in this case are connected with the career of a scientist.
The means of cognitive activity in academic psychology are developed by the scientists themselves, who build them according to their theoretical constructs, i.e. ideas about the phenomenon being studied. In this sense, E. Boring's statement is significant: "Intelligence is what intelligence tests", i.e. the researcher studies not so much a phenomenon as his own idea of it. Therefore, in psychology, there are many methods aimed at investigating the same phenomena, but these phenomena are considered from different angles. The tools of knowledge in psychological science often receive the names of their inventors. For example, "Rorschach Spots", "Kattell's 16 Factor Personal Questionnaire," Osgood's Semantic Differential, "Kelly's Repertory Lattice Test" etc. They are replicated and modified in various methodological procedures. Each of the techniques needs tooling. Work with research facilities in academic science is transformed into a special activity "methodical experiment" aimed at the invention, validation and validation of methodological tools.
Methods of scientific research are understood as a methodology of scientific knowledge, which is objectified in the methods and technologies of cognitive activity. They make up the content of the research process as a sequence of cognitive actions, operations and techniques. All this determines the essence of scientific research procedures.
The product of academic knowledge is the knowledge system about the subject area of a particular science. In psychology, these are psychological facts, patterns of mental activity, ideas about mental organization, concepts and theories. All ego refers to the fundamental problems of psychological science. In the process of their comprehension, new opportunities and methods for solving practical problems are naturally opened. Academic research expands the stock of scientific knowledge necessary for practical inventions and developments. Justification and evidence of scientific knowledge is an experimental method. His penetration into psychological cognition predetermined the emergence of psychological science in a number of other sciences (physical, biological, social).Wilhelm Wundt was the founder of academic psychology, who in 1879 organized a laboratory of experimental psychology where systematic studies of the functions of mental reflection by the experimental method were conducted and began special training of psychologists at the University of Leipzig.
Applied Research should address the optimization of human activities under specific conditions. In applied research, the achievements of academic research are used, but in relation to a specific human activity. The emphasis in them is on the functions of a particular human activity.
The purpose of applied psychology is to rationalize people's behavior and activities for maximum efficiency.
F. M. Andreeva writes that the goal of any applied research is the direct solution of the practical problem, the more or less rapid introduction of the results of this research to improve some aspects of the material or spiritual activity of society. This is the reason for the specific features of applied research.
The means of applied psychology are created specifically for individual cases of rationalized activity and behavior. This is most often a modification of the means of academic science, although there may be original inventions.
The methods of applied psychology are modeling conditions, functional dependencies, human relationships, motives and all other components mental organization of a person, objectified in models of a specific activity , which is supposed to be optimized.
The products of applied research are specific models of optimal interaction in systems "man-object world" and man-man & quot ;.
Among the ancestors of applied psychology should be allocated X. Munsterberg, who in the early XX century. laid theoretical foundations of technological solutions in applied research of professional activity.
Practical psychology is transformed into a professional activity to provide psychological help to a specific person or group of people to overcome various psychological problems, psychological support and support.
The purpose of practical psychology is recreating a cohesive and mentally healthy person through psychological help at the request of clients.
The means of psychological care are concentrated in the psychotherapeutic abilities of the psychologist. He himself is the main instrument of his professional activity, where special knowledge, psychological giftedness, vision and intuition are realized in means of communication with the client.
The methods of practical psychology are embedded in communication and impact technologies on clients. In form, these are psychological conversations and counseling, trainings. An important way to find targets (client problems) is psychodiagnostics. A large number of problems generates many private technologies of psychotherapeutic influence. Moreover, the use of this or that technology is associated with three factors: the specifics of the client's problem, its subjective characteristics, and the skills of applying this or that technology to a practical psychologist.
The products of practical help is psychological adequacy and social personality adaptation.
The founder of this area of psychological science and practice can be considered Sigmund Freud, who not only developed
the basic technological principles of psychoanalysis, but also the scientific and theoretical basis of psychotherapy as a special direction in medicine. In the future, his followers, as well as representatives of the humanistic direction, in particular Karl Rogers, expanded the psychologist's practical activities in the field of interaction with clients not suspected of mental and personality disorders as part of psychological counseling.
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