Assessing the thinking of a junior high school studentContentful information about the level of mental development of a schoolboy, his individual characteristics of cognitive activity, qualities of the mind is necessary for the teacher for the following purposes:
• implementation of an individual approach;
• selection of tasks that most effectively affect mental activity;
• Impact on the personality of the student through individualized appraisal activity;
• Organization of joint activities with parents to improve the quality of the minds of schoolchildren
• Identify the most mentally gifted children;
• correct evaluation of their teaching work;
• creative activity.
The school psychologist studies the mental characteristics of schoolchildren in joint activities with the teacher. The teacher collects data about the student in the process of constant, systematic observation of him, his successes, mistakes, judgments, etc. All this information can be reflected in special diaries of observations, in the student's psychological passport and other forms of recording the results of observations. A more detailed and meaningful study of mental features is carried out by a school psychologist. The data of the teacher's observations and student's studies by a psychologist using special techniques are generalized and their qualitative characteristics are determined. On this basis, a program is being built, specific methods of psychological correctional work are being developed, which is maintained by the teacher and psychologist according to a single plan.
In order to properly assess the mental activity of the student, it is necessary to start from the modern data on thinking as different ways of solving problems: generalized and non-aggregated.
The non-generalized method of solving problems, i.e. the solution is only for this particular case, it characterizes the empirical type of thinking. The empirical nature of the approach to solving problems is expressed in the orientation only on the observables that are directly observed or presented, with information first collected about each object of the problem, and then the results are compared.
The generalized way (thinking of a theoretical type) takes place when the problem is solved not only for a given particular case, but for all homogeneous ones. The theoretical approach involves abstracting from the visual features of the objective and conditions of the problem. The solution is aimed at finding relationships that are essential for all cases that are the same as those described in this task.
Different approaches to solving problems correspond to different actions. Individuals with an empirical type of thinking fluently get acquainted with the conditions of the problem and immediately try to solve it, based on the value of numerical data or on words characterizing the relationship between the quantities. Theoretical They also read the problem, isolating the conditions of the problem of the ratio of quantities from the text. The process of solving the problem is purposeful, meaningful and manageable, while actions characteristic of a theoretical decision are observed: analysis, reflection, modeling, the ability to act in the mind.Analysis is the allocation in the conditions of the problem of essential data relationships, ie, such relationships on which a successful solution of not only a particular problem depends, but also similar ones.
Reflection is such a person's comprehension of his actions, in which he finds out their grounds. Knowledge of the type of problem being solved by a person can serve as an indicator that he is understanding his actions, understands their legitimacy. The condition for such a reflection is the image of its way of solving the problem. Making your actions clear, a person has the opportunity to generalize, typify.
The meaning of modeling in the most general sense is the replacement of some objects by others in a certain respect, so that the study of the latter allows you to learn new about the replaced objects. Modeling assumes that a person has the ability to operate in a differently designed relationship.
Analysis, reflection, modeling are impossible without the ability to act in the mind, ie. the ability of a person to imagine in advance what will happen as a result of his efforts, to anticipate the image of the future result. Action in the mind is characterized by planning the way to achieve the goal, the mental development of a method of obtaining the expected result under specific conditions.
The ability to act in the mind develops at school age. The more steps a child can take, and the more carefully he can compare their different options, the more successfully he will carry out self-monitoring actions during the study (anticipating or planning self-control). In Soviet psychology, the most deeply and completely able to act mentally explored Ya. A. Ponomarev. He came to the conclusion that the level of development of the ability to act in the mind at the internal level is an indicator of general mental development.
In pedagogical psychology, several options are developed to determine the level of development of thinking in schoolchildren.
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