Anal type, Anal traits - Psychoanalysis. T. 1. Freudianism and neo-Freudianism

Anal character

Integrated goal:

know

• the reasons that lead to the formation of an anal character;

be able to

diagnose the anal pattern;

own

• The skills of therapeutic work with the bearers of a given psychological structure.

No, suffer first your wealth,

And there we'll see if the unhappy will become

Then squander that acquired by blood.

(AS Pushkin)

Anal features

In the summer at the dacha after a morning run I go to the lake and here I constantly watch the same scene. A father and daughter come by bicycle. Before they bathe, they put a huge piece of cellophane on the grass. Then they begin to undress. It looks like a kind of ritual. Cellophane is put on cakes, T-shirts. They are neatly rolled up by an envelope, placed on a towel, which also folds in the form of a quadrangle. All this is done slowly, with understanding, as if this is really a ritual action.

After a short bath, the father and daughter begin to dress. Everything happens according to a well thought out and well-organized scheme. I always find myself thinking, from what do these summer residents get more pleasure - from bathing or laying out things? However, the answer itself does not cause me any doubt. You can ask: what, you need to scatter things on the grass and then look for every part of the toilet? This is not about the accuracy and the desire for order, which in themselves are commendable. There is a noticeable neurotic fixation on scrupulousness and accuracy. This, of course, anal features.

When Freud thought about the structure of the characters, he, first of all, singled out those features that are associated with anal traits. In the second year of a child's life, his sensuality is fixed in the anus. When a mother changes diapers or launderes a child, she inevitably affects the emerging sexuality of the baby. At the age of two to three, many children begin to show curiosity to their bodies, although they realize the sex differences a little later. Babies often look at their genitals. The child has a vague awareness of the first sexual feelings and the first reaction to them.

However, in the development of the child, you can find a lot of new things. When he was a baby, his physiological functions were not controlled by him. The child could receive food only when the mother gave him the breast, his bowel movements were thrown out according to the body's need. Now the situation is changing. The child can resist the mother when she offers him a porridge or, on the contrary, plant it on a pot. A child can become stubborn and say: "I do not want to!".

Anal traits develop when parents begin to teach the child to release the intestines. It does not do without conflicts. First, any living being reacts painfully to attempts to interfere with his bodily functions. Try, for example, forcibly feeding the dog, you run the risk of forgetting what a person's friend is. And now compare this with the mother's desire to send another spoonful of porridge into the baby's mouth, this time for a grandmother or for a celebrated cosmonaut.

Having learned to liberate the intestines independently, the child can please his parents. The kid does not yet consider the products of his vital activity as something separated from his body. Having paid tribute to nature, he brings his product to his parents as a gift. But the child begins to think that it can to some extent manipulate the parents. Mom puts the baby on the pot, and he already fixes in his mind: "And I do not want to!".

The child receives a physiological pleasure from cleansing the intestines and from containing the dispatches. Here and there are certain traits of character. The bearer of such a structure of experiences can subsequently show pedantry and accuracy coming from childhood. One of my patients tells me that when she is alone at home, she still covers all the rules on the table. He spreads the tablecloth, laid out forks, spoons, napkins. Everything is done as if a company of snobs are coming on a visit. But someone will say: my God, is that bad? Do you really need to eat on a tray, as horrible and hasty. No! The whole point is how the goal and the means are correlated. If your goal is to enjoy the bath, as a means of laying things out in the established order, this is undoubtedly a neurotic situation. If you want a tasty meal, but for this endlessly long and paranoidly scrupulously serve the table, this means that there is a neurotic fixation.

Fixation - is a strong relationship with certain persons , images or actions , which reproduce the same way of satisfying. Within the framework of the genetic approach, i.e. attempts to find the origins of such behavior, fixation appears as a directed development of libido (emphasis on one or another stage of psychosexual development). In the framework of the Freudian theory of the unconscious, fixation is a way of incorporating certain immutable contents (experience, images, fantasies) into the unconscious, which serve as a support for drives.

A neurotic, like any other person, bears the imprint of a child's experience, preserves attachment (more or less hidden) to certain modes of satisfaction, certain types of objects and archaic relationships. Psychoanalytic treatment testifies to the power of past experience and its repeatability, as well as the resistance of the person to the very possibility of getting rid of it.

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