Analysis of Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, and Humanism

Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, Humanism

  • DOROTHY ASHTON

Abstract

This assignment talks about the historical brass tacks of three most important schools of contemplation within the field of psychology: Psychoanalysis, Behaviorism, and Humanism. I am using these specific theories and principles to understand a particular case scenario. In addition, it compares and contrasting the talents and the restrictions of every theory.

School of Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis started as a tool for enhancing poignant anguish; it's a therapy way of education about the psyche, and also a way of appreciative the procedure of customary on a daily basis mental execution and the periods of normal extension from formative years to seniors age. The thought of psychotherapy first began to get serious attention under Sigmund Freud in Vienna in the 1890s. Freud was a neurologist looking for an valuable management for patients with neurotic or uproarious symptoms. Freud's normal mind theory was serene of three elements: the id, the ego and the superego. The identification comprises primordial urges, as the ego is the building block of moral fiber, thought-provoking with coping with authenticity. The superego is the component of individuality that contains all the ethics and guidelines we pick up on from our parents and culture. Freud recognized to help in the communication of these three elements was what resulted in all of the multifaceted human manners.

Anna Freud's contributions to psychology were the field of child psychoanalysis and her work contribute greatly to your knowledge of child psychology. The majority of Anna's education was from her dad Sigmund Freud's friends and affiliates.

Carl Jung identified to learn medication but urbanized a involvement in divine phenomena. His fascination with solution and theology led him in to the field of psychiatry that he seen as a amalgamation of his interests. I understand that Jung's theory created major criticism and his work remaining astonishing blow on psychology. One of is own principles was introversion and extraversion contributed to character psychology and also predisposed psychotherapy. He offered advice on serene affliction from alcoholism led to the set up of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) that helped millions of people' anguish from alcohol reliance.

Erikson depleted moment in time learning the edifying life of the South Dakota and in northern California. Erik utilizes the comprehension he acquired of edifying, ecological, and societal influences to press forward amplify his psychoanalytic speculation. Freud's conjecture got attending to on the psychosexual helpings of adulthood, Erikson's accumulation of other influences helped to become wider and increase psychoanalytic hypothesis. He in addition contributed to our sympathetic of personality as it is urbanized and wrought in excess of the path of the natural life. Erik's annotations of offspring also helped arranged the area for promote follow a type of exploration.

This article by Christopher Spera "A Review of the Relationship Among Parenting Tactics, Parenting Styles, and Adolescent University Achievement, " debates over several studies that have a correlation on parental engagement and monitoring. "The socialization development is bidirectional for the reason that parents express socialization messages to their children, but their children differ in an even of popularity, receptivity, and internalization of these information (Grusec et al. , 2000) (C Spera, 2005) "Authoritative parenting styles tend to be associated with higher degrees of student accomplishment, although these results are not consistent across culture, ethnicity, and socioeconomic position. ") (C. Spera, 2005) the majority of Freud's own efforts which were highly contentious in his time, is currently everyday ideas inside our world. Psychoanalytic efforts to the present day experience and culture didn't end with Freud's death; in reality I feel that it will go on for years and years to come.

School of Behaviorism

When it comes to the concept of behaviorism I often think about the most prominent offer by John B. Watson

"Give me twelve healthy infants, well-formed, and my own given world to bring them up in and I'll ensure to take any one randomly and train him to be any type of specialist I might select -- doctor, lawyer, designer, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, irrespective of his abilities, penchants, tendencies, talents, vocations, and competition of his ancestors. " --John Watson, Behaviorism, 1930

The University of Behaviorism was founded by John B. Watson. He assumed that a person's behavior can be measured, trained, and improved. The emphasis is put on philosophical/theoretical underpinnings of action analysis. Behavior analysis' intangible base is referred to as radical behaviorism, which is seen as a the postulation that habit can be analyzed using innate technology methods. The behaviorist observation of verbal habit emphasizes the functional nature of terminology and the continuation of rule ascendancy in individuals habit. The major ideas and ideas within the institution of behaviorism include cognitive psychology, constructivism, cultural constructivism, experimental learning, multiple intellect, and situated learning theory. The major thinkers that affected behaviorism were John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov, B. F. Skinner, Edward Thorndike, and Clark Hull.

Ivan Pavlov wasn't a psychologist and was thought to dislike the field entirely, but his work got a major influence on behaviorism. Pavlov made a breakthrough on reflexes influenced the growing behaviorism activity and was known to be cited in John B. Watson's writings. The work that I relate with Pavlov's work is his research of conditioning as a framework of knowledge. B. F. Skinner was a inexhaustible novelist, submitting basically 200 articles and more than 20 books. Skinner's work of operant conditioning is still considered imperative in the present day. This system is utilized by mental medical researchers. In his own way Skinner left a remarkable legacy on mindset and also other fields ranging from beliefs to education. Edward Thorndike was highly associated with functionalism. Thorndike's contribution to mindset was considered to be the daddy of present day educational mindset and printed several books on the subject. He is also known for his canine experiments as well as for regulations of impact. Clark Hull contributions to psychology of drive reduction theory offered as an over-all theory of learning for other experts. His theory was a broader version of social learning and imitation minus the motivating stimuli needing to the survival needs associated with an organism. Hulls theories were a respected influence in American psychology.

Parenting entails bidirectional connections linking sets of two or more generations; can extend completely throughout all or main parts of the particular life spans of those groups; may match place all corporations within a way of life, including educational, economic, political, and cultural ones; and it is surrounded in the annals of people--as that history occurs within the ordinary and ingenuous configurations within that your assemblage lives. If I wished to give an example of how the college of behaviorism form and influence societal thinking I'd talk about how students join collectively classroom environments with the teacher's caring mannerisms, and through traditional conditioning, gain understanding of to do something in response to the institution with encouraging feelings. Instructors can also improve scholar emotions of competency by modeling effort and perseverance, also reinforcing authentic undertakings. Sensibly, then, designed in co-operation adolescents and their caregivers, teenagers is a period of exhilaration and of fretfulness; of contentment and of quandary; of creativity and of incomprehension; and of timeouts with the precedent or more till now of organizations with the near future. Those people who are people of civilizing minorities can also provide as role models. I would have to provide a good example of Arnold Schwarzenegger idolizing a famous body builder and eventually increased to popularity as the world's top body builder career.

School of Humanism

Humanism originated in response to Freud's psychoanalysis and behaviorism. While close to the beginning universities of humanism were for the most part centered on anomalous human behavior, humanistic mindset differed considerably in its emphasis to supporting people achieve and gratify their probable. Humanistic, humanism and humanist are vocabulary in psychology concerning to a strategy which studies the whole person, and the distinctiveness of every human being. Fundamentally, this vocabulary identifies the same advance in mindset. Humanism is a subconscious approach that emphasizes the study of the complete person. Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through the eye of the spectator, but through the sight of the individual doing the behaving. Humanism is a philosophical and moral bearing that stresses the importance and modern culture of humans, in isolation and cooperatively and generally prefers critical thinking and confirmation (rationalism, empiricism) over time-honored group of guidelines or devotion (fideism). The major theorist of humanism is Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers.

Abraham Maslow contributions to psychology targeted aspects of individuals nature which were considered unusual. His fascination with human probable, seeking peak experiences and enhancing mental health by seeking personal progress had an extended lasting impact on psychology. You can say that growing interest was at positive psychology. Maslow even created a pyramid chart listing individuals hierarchy of needs. 1. Physiological- Human survival- respiration, food, water, making love, sleep, homeostasis, excretion 2. Safe practices- Security- Morality, Family, Health, Property 3. Love and Items- Psychological needs- Friendship, Family, Sexual Intimacy 4. Esteem- Respect- Self applied- Esteem, self-confidence, achievement, respect of others, value by others 5. Self-Actualization- Real human Achievement- Morality, Imagination, Spontaneity, Problem Solving, Insufficient Prejudice, Acceptance of Facts.

Carl Rogers's contribution to psychology was also in real human potential. Rogers acquired major impact on psychology and education. Carl Rogers is mainly considered as an important psychologist of the 20th hundred years by other psychologist. All of the humanistic psychotherapy are concepts from profundity treatment, all natural wellbeing, falter upon categories, empathy training, matrimonial and family unit therapy, body labor, the existential psychotherapy. The five basic main values of humanistic mindset are
  1. Human beings, as individuals, take the place of the sum with their parts. They can not be condensed to components.
  2. Human beings have their success in a distinctively human framework, as well as in a celestial bionetwork.
  3. Human beings are alert and are attentive to be aware - i. e. , they are simply conscious. Human being realization constantly includes an knowledge of oneself in the framework of additional people.
  4. Human beings are capable to make choices and for that reason have accountability.
  5. Human beings are deliberate, aspire at goals, are responsive that they cause potential occurrences, and ask about meaning, importance, and eyesight.

Strengths & Limitations

When it comes to the dissimilarities in ideas, I realize that the behaviorism theory flaw is the fact it became unpopular and unable to hold up to scrutiny in its historical time period. WHENEVER I compare the theory to Freud's psychoanalysis theory I recognize which it can't just be one or the other. You need both nature and nurture to become complete. The thing that I find creditable as it pertains to the humanistic procedure is its positive affirmations to get students self-assurance and competence where it's considered at least to maintain the normal range.

Case Study

In this specific case we have a woman known as Judy who is a 29-year-old single woman going to college or university. Judy has an extremely challenging personality; she constantly deals with high nervous pressure job while she actually is completing her 2nd year as a medical resident in a sizable hospital. Judy is definitely an over achiever. She's completed with top honors in both university and medical university. She has high guidelines that she lives by and becomes her worse do it yourself critic when she does not meet them. Nowadays, she has been fighting momentous emotions of unimportance and humiliation due to her incapability to carry out as audio as she constantly has in the precedent.

Its' my estimation, I will offer you three different perspectives of the results from the academic institutions of thought.

  1. A psychoanalyst would say that Judy is having problems with one the three elements, id, ego, and superego. Since Judy has extremely high expectation about what she fines suitable. Freud may possibly feel that Judy is suffering from some form of hysteria. I'd think that a behaviorist would say that Judy is having issues with her patterns. I feel that a humanist would say that Judy is having issues with motivation and although she has high competence in this issue.
  2. In Judy's case the institution of psychoanalysis and behaviorism wouldn't normally be completely useful. Psychoanalysis can help know what is happening in the unconscious mind but it will not solve the issue. Behaviorism may observe the issue and even try to use conditioning methods to solve the challenge. The humanistic strategy attempt to assistance with positive reinforcement. This would be the most useful methodology because its used to help students be successful.
  3. I feel that Humanism will be the right approach for Judy's circumstance. Humanistic mindset is a mental health perspective that stresses the analysis of the complete person. This specific school of thought could be properly utilized by a professor in Judy's university. The teacher might use a student-centered solution to help Judy not only with academic but also the internal have to get frustrated over not getting the grades that she was ultimately expecting but not receiving. (positive emotions) With regards to behaviorism Judy could be conditioned but it is merely covering in the problem. Psychoanalysis could help Judy sort out her issues but it wouldn't do anything to assist in preventing the event from taking place again.

Conclusion

In my opinion, the principles of different types of universities of thought gave everyone a chance to show their opinions on what's considered important. Freud's idea of the normal mind was very important to his life research. B. F. Skinners and John Watson's hypothesis of the person may become anything they really want with effort and growing up in the right environment wasn't taken as critically in the public eye as it should have but B. F. Skinners operant conditioning method experienced a lasting impact on society. Humanism didn't gain plenty of support in the past but gave us a wonderful starting place to positive mindset.

References

Christopher Spera in Educational Mindset Review (2005) http://link. springer. com/article/10. 1007/s10648-005-3950-1

Richard M. Lerner, E. Ree Noh, and Clancie Wilson. 1998 http://parenthood. catalogue. wisc. edu/Lerner/Lerner-bib. html

Burrhus Frederic Skinner. (2014). http://www. biography. com/people/bf-skinner-9485671.

"An Launch to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs-Abraham Maslow"

Benjamin, Jr. , L. T. (2014). A brief overview of modern mindset (2nd ed. ). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley and Sons.

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