Analysis of the Ecological Systems Theory

The ecological systems theory originated by Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917- 2005) to clarify the role the environment plays on the child at different phases of development. It evaluated the interrelationship between nature and nurture considering that heredity, as well as environmental factors are likely involved in child development. In Bronfenbrenner's first many years of research, he defined this theory as "the analysis of progressive, common accommodation, throughout the life span, between a growing human organism and the changing immediate conditions in which it lives" (as cited in Salkind, 2004). Then identified four levels of the environment comparing these to Russian dolls which nest within one another as the size of each gradually enhances (The Family from a Child Development Perspective). These four degrees of the surroundings are: the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem and the macrosystem. As he persisted to do further research of the theory and collaborated with other psychologists, several new concepts were introduced to complement his early ideas. In essence, bioecological factors that effect the individual's ability to be beneficial to his environment were included leading to the idea being renamed as the "bioecogical theory" and the addition of another level of the environment, the chronosystem.

The first level of the surroundings Bronfenbrenner determined is the microsystem. It is the immediate surroundings in which the child interacts in person and is inspired. It directly influences the child and hence is the closest to the kid. It has the capacity to change during the course of the day as motion of the child occurs in one spot to another. There are also three different components within every microsystem. These components include: the physical space and activities within the microsystem; the folks who are area of the microsystem and their assignments within it; and the connections between the person and the other people in the microsystem (Salkind, 2004). Types of microsystems include the child's home, area, nursery or college and the individuals who are likely involved in these microsystems are family, friends/peers and instructors. What sort of child behaves around these people will influence the way they treat him in return and vice versa. The first microsystem a kid would experience is the home, then as the child gets older he would go into other microsystems like the nursery or college, where he would have the ability to meet new people, getting together with them, improving gross engine skills and fine engine skills.

The second level of the surroundings he determined is the mesosystem. This consists of interrelationships between several microsystems for the benefit of the child. These interrelationships can have a circuitous effect on the child. Folks, who are likely involved in the various microsystems, interact with each other building a fresh experience for the child. If it's a positive romantic relationship it can promote development of the child leading to an optimistic experience. However if it is a negative romantic relationship, it can bring about a tense and negative experience for the child. An example of an interrelationship between mesosystems would be the relationship between the child's mother or father and teacher. If they're able to interact playing an active role in the child's development i. e. the parent ensures that the kid does his home work thus supporting the instructor, participates in mother or father teacher association conferences, contributes to the institution and class happenings, the child would be encouraged to work harder in school, his social skills would be improve and evidently there will be a positive experience being provided. Alternatively, if the child does not do his research and gets punished, his parents do not ensure that he does indeed his home work, complain to the theory that the tutor hardly gives the child work and punishes the kid, the child might be able to sense tension between his parents and professor- a poor experience. The child may persist at being disruptive in course to get the attention of his professor and parents, this can lead to him being separated from his classmates and so reduced capability to socialize.

The third level of the environment is the exosystem. The exosystem is the amount of the environment where the child has a low level of conversation in. The child would not be there in this level on a regular basis but it could still be capable of indirectly influence the development of the child in a number of ways. The kid also wouldn't normally be engaged in decision making operations about himself as well as others at this amount of the environment. Examples of an exosystem are the child's dentist office, the child's parents' work place and the homes of faraway relatives of the kid. A child whose mother or father is a professional singer and goes on tour performing in other countries may not see his parent or guardian for several months due to the parent's tight timetable. This can cause less family time or less bonding time to occur, leaving the kid stressed for the introduction of the father or mother. This nervousness can impact on his development even though he has little to no relationship along with his parents work or say in the decision making process.

The next degree of the surroundings Bronfenbrenner stated is the macrosystem. The macrosystem involves all the degrees of the environment previously stated and the culture and values of the kid which place his norms and principles to have the ability to exist and function successfully in the population where he lives. Bronfenbrenner detailed the macrosystem as "overarching institutional habits of culture or subculture, such as the economic, public, educational, legal, and politics systems which local micro, meso, and exosystems are the concrete manifestations" (Salkind, 2004). The macrosystem can also impact on the interactions of all the other levels of the surroundings. A child's macrosystem may change as he ages because of the further development and use of technology. A good example of a macrosystem would be

The final level of the surroundings Bronfenbrenner discovered is the chronosystem. The chronosystem includes natural environmental occurrences, changes which happen through the child's life and sociohistorical circumstances. These can be distressing experiences for the kid. Natural environmental happenings contain hurricanes, tornadoes, tsunamis, earthquakes etc. Changes which occur during the child's life-time can be categorized as normative or non-normative. Normative changes are the changes from nursery university to primary school, the adolescent stage of puberty, early on marriages in some cultures, entering the task power, etc. while non-normative changes would are the sudden fatality of a member of family credited to a short-term illness, the parting of the child's parents, moving from a location where good friends and relatives live to a remote area. These changes can either have a good or negative impact on the child's development. When a child enters a higher level of education from a lower level he makes new friends and evolves his social / communication skills more. The parting and death of any child's parents would impact a younger child's development in another way from an older child. A youthful child is probably not able to know very well what occurred whereas an older child would. It could therefore have a permanent negative impact on the aged child. The elderly child may commence to regress, perform terribly in school, type in a state of despair etc.

As seen above, each degree of the environment includes people who play an important role in the socialization process of the child. These people are known as socialization real estate agents. Socialization agents are the family, peer communities, schools and media. Socialization occurs through the family and peer categories at the primary level of socialization and occurs through the institution and mass media at the secondary level.

Primary socialization occurs from enough time that the kid is born to the first few many years of life. The family styles the child's values and helps the kid determine what the norms of his population are. How the child's parents react to certain situations help the kid in determining what's right from wrong and how he should behave when he is home from in another environment. Socialization by the family is also informal, unstructured and unorganized.

The school and mass media is where in fact the child benefits more knowledge and recognition about things he recently knew or did not through the coaching, publishing and conversation of various topics. They may be more structured, organized and formal environments.

Urie Bronfenbrenner's theory focusing on the growing and expanding child informs these four main socialization agents in several ways. First of all it informs the child's family and teachers on how to deal with and keep an eye on negative situations within the home and school. For instance, scholar A was playing with a basketball and pupil B sought the football but didn't ask to own it and required it away from student A. Scholar B then needed student A to experiment with with him but pupil A refused. College student B then purposely kicks the basketball to hit student A in his face. College student A then retaliates by body slamming pupil B into the ground. Out of this observation, a instructor with knowledge of Urie Bronfenbrenner's theory can conclude that university student A has a violent mesosystem and his relationship with his parents and other family members may be low and abusive leading to him displaying this action to others. The instructor would then speak to student A's parents about the event and come to a common agreement on how to improve this behavior to an optimistic affect on the child's growth and development. Abuse of the kid for his activities can lead to more aggressive tendencies toward his fellow workers and teachers especially if he thinks that retaliating that way was the good thing to do as his parents, like many Barbadian parents, instruct their children that if someone visits them they must hit them back.

Secondly, schools and community centers should add more extracurricular activities and community activities that would change the child's negative mesosystem and exosystem to a confident one. The child's time and energy would be more focused on positive developmental skills such as learning how to play a fresh sport and tool, learning to do new build projects etc. This might also involve the interaction with other folks or the development of communication skills. Types of these would include university fun walks for charity, medication education programs such as SUBSTANCE ABUSE Level of resistance Education in Barbados, 4-H, dancing groupings etc. These socialization agencies educated by Bronfenbrenner's theory should provide someone, such as counsellors, that the child would feel comfortable to speak to when he cannot speak to his parents in regards to a problem which might stun his development and development. Essentially, the counsellor would notify the parents and a interpersonal worker if it is an event such as sexual misuse by another relative or another person.

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