Approaches to the construction of test achievements, Determination...

Approaches to constructing test achievements

The main task that the developer of the test faces is to get an answer to the questions: what is measured and how it is possible to measure. The answer to the first question involves determining the purpose of testing, justifying a test construct and its operationalization. The answer to the second question is the construction of test tasks and their verification.

The construction of test achievement is carried out in accordance with the following scheme:

1) determining the purpose of testing;

2) the rationale for the test construct and its operationalization;

3) the specification of the test;

4) empirical test and examination of the test;

5) improving the test and analyzing the results of its application.

Defining the test target

The content and difficulty of the test tasks can not be considered irrespective of the testing objectives. If it is a question of developing input control tests at the beginning of learning (initial level tests), then it makes no sense to fill them with particularly difficult tasks. After all, such tests are designed to determine which of the reference ones, i.e. corresponding area of ​​the subject material, knowledge is already available to students. Not varying the levels of difficulty, and an exhaustive and representative set of tasks for the subject area to be mastered is a distinctive feature of this category of tests.

The purpose of testing can be to control the assimilation of a topic, section or course as a whole. To do this, training tests, are developed to provide feedback on the achievement of educational goals. In these unformalized tests, as a rule, graduation of tasks according to the level of difficulty should be provided, based on the explanation and breadth of the topic and the structure of the skills and habits necessary for mastering it. E. Stone, in particular, notes that the hierarchical structure of learning problems already allows them to be distributed at different levels, depending on the complexity of the skill that they are going to teach.

For developing diagnostic tests, focusing on analyzing learning difficulties and their causes, it is more important to reflect the structure of a particular mental skill, rather than trying to cover the entire hierarchy of educational outcomes. This test primarily diagnoses errors that students allow. Based on their analysis, ways to achieve an acceptable level of training are determined.

The final skill test is created in order to assess the wide area of ​​knowledge that has developed after the end of the training cycle. In order to adequately identify the full range of educational outcomes, tasks should be prepared that ensure the identification of basic training skills and their integrated structures. Typically, assignments in such texts are adapted to determine different levels of educational preparation.

In tests of monitoring academic achievements with the purpose of comparing them in different age-educational and socio-cultural groups, emphasis is placed on the functionality of knowledge, skills and skills. The assignments in such tests are interdisciplinary in nature and simulate difficult practical situations. This is reflected in the level structure of the test.

Rationale for the test construct

The main reason for the appearance of poor-quality tests that discredit testing as a valid and objective form of evaluation and control of educational achievements is that its developers do not know how to correctly determine the measured construct.

Test construct is a detailed description of the object of evaluation and control, namely the totality of the measured characteristics, allowing extrapolation of test results to the real educational situation simulated by the test.

In the testing of educational achievements, the operational definition of what is to be measured is of fundamental importance. It is required to establish a connection between the construct and the observed behavior. This is important, since the traits of both learners and psychologists of interest to both teachers and psychologists are practically inaccessible for direct measurement. It is necessary to conceptualize these characteristics in terms of knowledge, skills, skills, competences in order to establish rules for measuring them and to determine their behavioral indicators.

Underestimation of the methods of determining the test construct leads to the fact that the adequacy of the translation of the educational goal into the system of concrete behavioral problems is violated, and it is this process that underlies the tests of achievements.

If we analyze, for example, typical test tasks for checking the level of readability, then it is easy to see that often the subject of evaluation is not reading as such, but a set of training activities (highlighting the main idea, drawing up questions, filling in badges in text). Learning to read as an educational result involves the allocation of factors that affect the product of reading (reading comprehension), as well as the mental operations involved in the interaction of the reader with the text.

One of the problems that everyone who tries to isolate learning goals and extrapolate them to educational results in the formulation of learning tasks is the ambiguity or excessive generalization of the terms used: "to have strong knowledge", "to manifest awareness" ; promote in-depth understanding & quot ;. In addition to the problem of clarifying a goal like "knowledge of something", there is another difficulty - the learning tasks are set based on what the students should learn. Formulations like have knowledge are unlikely to help when a teacher or a psychologist deals with the multiple levels of ownership of some subject area of ​​content. At the same time, the question remains what is meant by achievements in various learning situations. As far as the educational results are concerned, attention should be paid to those changes in the abilities, thought actions and strategies that occur during the training. To the question "What is the difference between the student who completed the training course and those who did not pass this course?" it's incorrect to answer that the first knows the topic "Fractions" better; or Interest & quot ;. The answer must be formulated in terms of the measured properties and characteristics of the action, which make it possible to differentiate the levels of its development and transfer them to the real learning situation in which the measurable construct will be applied.

The compiler of the test should deal with the formulation of learning tasks in accordance with the concept of specific knowledge, skills and skills that pupils must learn at the end of the course or its specific stage. And these formulations should be precise and unambiguous.

A well-known taxonomy of B. Bloom makes a definite contribution to the disclosure of the hierarchy of skills in connection with the aims of education. In it, the learning process is presented in the form of a hierarchy of skills, hence the name - taxonomy. At the base are simple skills, but as they move up they become more complex, interconnected and more practical. Each of the taxonomy categories is provided with comments, explanatory material and examples of verification tasks designed to establish mastery of the skills of this particular level. The most typical verbs are used to describe the tasks in each of the sections of the taxonomy. Category Knowledge involves the ability to name, recall, list, learn, select, reproduce, draw (for example, give a definition to a triangle), whereas the category "Understanding" is connected with the skills to explain, find reasons, illustrate by example (for example, to explain, based on the knowledge of Newton's laws, the importance of seat belts). To maximally fully master a specific topic, according to B. Bloom, it is necessary to master all the skills listed in the taxonomy (in the cognitive field there are six of them - knowledge, understanding, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation). The lower level skills are necessary for mastering more high skills. For example, it is impossible to solve an arithmetic division problem if the student can not explain how to divide, and does not know the inverse of division of the multiplication.

That is why the substantiation of skills in taxonomy does not reflect the real tasks of training, it is rather determined by an assessment of the cognitive requirements of these tasks. The problem that all people who try to apply the Bloom taxonomy to develop test tasks in accordance with the objectives of training pay attention to is that the levels of tasks in it are not related logically or psychologically. E. Stone on this occasion notes that this taxonomy "can not give more, what it contains, namely the classification of means for the systematization of already existing tasks."

The rationale for the construct defines the boundaries of its operationalization. Operationalization - is the definition of a test construct that establishes a relationship between the construct and the measured behavior. It includes an analysis of the characteristics of the test task, which most fully correspond to the measured construct.

By implementing the operationalization of the construct "educational achievement", the developer of the test inevitably encounters the following problems:

1) how to determine if all the necessary training tasks are included;

2) how to find out whether the tasks adequately reflect the subject area of ​​knowledge.

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