Barriers To Learning Encountered Children With Down Syndrome Psychology Essay

Causes and Risks of Down's Syndrome. Initially, I'd like to mention what's Down syndrome (DS). Down syndrome, also referred to as Trisomy 21, is a predicament in which additional genetic material played a substantial role in the manner a kid matures, both physically and intellectually.

It is a genetic disease that affects approximately one atlanta divorce attorneys 1, 000 babies. Each individual has 46 chromosomes, which are divided into 23 pairs. Each man's sperm has 23 chromosomes and each woman's egg is the same, so that when the arrest takes place and the sperm fertilizes the egg, shaped a young man with a full complement of chromosomes. Sometimes mistakes are made and caused chromosomal abnormalities. Down syndrome is one of them. A kid born with Down's syndrome comes with an extra chromosome in every cell in his body.

So far, we do not know very well what causes the occurrence of a supplementary chromosome. It could come from either the mother or the daddy. It is significant to remember though that faults in chromosome distribution aren't rare. However, there is a specific link with older mothers. Most babies with Down syndrome are born to women under age 35, simply because as a female reaches the latter years of her reproductive life, the probability of a fault in chromosome distribution rises progressively. That which you do know is the fact that nobody should be blamed. A kid with Down syndrome is likely to be born in virtually any family, almost with the same rate in any population. It can happen to everyone.

Although Down syndrome can not be averted, it can be discerned before a child is born. For those parents who've a proportionately high recurrence risk for Down's syndrome, future pregnancies can be monitored by chromosome studies on fetal amniotic cells, with early termination of the pregnancy when the fetus is destined to have Down's syndrome. Medical difficulties that can go together with DS can be handled, and there are many resources within communities to help kids and their families who are living with the situation.

At this point, I will mention that the syndrome was initially noted by British physician John Langdon Down (hence the name), where in 1866, he noticed that many people having no connection with one another, located in various institutions, had similar physical characteristics. It was not until 1959, however, an additional chromosome was recognized as the cause.

Types of Syndrome Down

There are three major types of the Down syndrome. The kid is likely to have Trisomy 21, i. e. the existence of additional genetic material on the 21st couple of chromosomes (three 21 chromosomes rather than two). About 95 percent of folks who have Down syndrome have Trisomy 21. The remaining 5% of the population made up of two other types:

The removable type, due to partial or total binding on chromosome 21 with another chromosome, which, in fact, is the extra chromosome pair 21. This type creates important implications for subsequent births and its consequences should be investigated by an expert geneticist.

The mosaic type, the folks of this type have cells that other have three chromosomes 21 and other normally two. The ratio of prevalence of the two cell types is random. It's the most rare type of syndrome Down. Moreover, there are slight external features of the syndrome, the children have fewer health issues and also slight mental retardation.

Down syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by a number of physical and mental problems, which lead to slow development in all respects. We cannot always predict with assurance the amount of cognitive and behavioral development of children with DS, since this depends on the training, the family environment, the accompanying problems and also the attitudes of society where the child lives. However, we can ensure that within the correct school context, which in most cases should be the mainstream school, and with appropriate supportive assistance, 80-% of children can learn successfully on social skills and find basic school knowledge.

It is important before we deal with the training of your person with DS to learn the particularities of learning also to consider both the collection of learning objects and the teaching method we will use (Polychronopoulos, 2001). Like in all the other children we also find large individual variations in the physical, mental and psychological characteristics in DS people. However, there are many features that affect their education and need to find out who deal with it.

Another difficulty the people who have Down Syndrome confront is the auditory memory, which is the capability to listen, to process and understand the sounds, thus distinguishing the stimuli. Having less auditory memory makes worse the processing of auditory information and helps it be almost impossible to obtain fundamental knowledge grammar and syntax. Fortunately, the long-term memory, which allows us to withdraw persons, events and processes of days gone by, works well. It has additionally been discovered that as opposed to the auditory memory, the visual memory works more effectively, a significant factor which should be looked at when deciding how to provide information to these students (Sue Buckley and Angela Byrne, 1994 ).

The skills of children with Down syndrome in arithmetic aren't yet sufficiently investigated, we know that in this area the kids with Down syndrome face the most difficulties. The delayed and deficient language development is one of the reasons for this difficulty. Language can be an indispensable tool for thinking, comparison and manipulation of objects and activities and is a web link to the numerical system. So people have found difficult to execute such cognitive functions also to follow the instructions and explanations of the teacher. The limited short-term memory is another important reason behind difficulties encountered by children with Down Syndrome.

To be able to perform additional activities such as add, subtract or multiply numbers with our minds, we should have the ability to maintain information briefly inside our short memory. That's the reason people with Down confront many difficulties to make calculations, unless they have before them, specifically things. These children are stuck at the stage of concrete thinking and cannot move to the abstract-symbolic thinking.

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