Basic principles of psychodiagnostic work with preschool children...

Basic principles of psychodiagnostic work with preschool children

Methodical methods for conducting a diagnostic examination of a child should be as short as possible (express methods), convenient for a quick study of a particular sphere of the child's personality. Before starting the diagnostic examination to establish an initial contact with the child, it is recommended that a so-called diagnostic interview be conducted that can relate to any topic. A psychologist should have a good command of the methodology for conducting it.

Diagnostic interview

The literature describes general recommendations for conducting a diagnostic interview with children. Typically, this interview has the following structure:

1. Introduction - involving the child in cooperation, setting .

2. Free, uncontrollable statements of the child.

3. General questions like "Can you tell me anything about yourself?", "I would be interested, since we have already met a little, how do you play with children?" and the like.

4. A detailed study.

5. An attempt to ease tension and a conclusion with an expression of gratitude to the child.

During the diagnostic interview, the child should be addressed only by name. Questions that are asked the child, there are three types:

direct, directly relating to the subject under investigation, for example: "Do you like plums?"

Indirect, threatening suggestions, for example: "What do you do if there is a vase with plums on the table?"

projective, combined with the identification of the child with a group or some person, for example: "Children love plums?".

The diagnostic interview should not be long and boring. It is necessary to apply different modifications in accordance with the age of children and diagnostic tasks. It is good to use toys, paper, pencils, markers for this purpose: because children can not describe their feelings, it is easier for them to express them in drawings. You can invite a child to play a scene, answering a question.

The psychologist must develop an appropriate recording system to achieve greater objectivity of the results. The use of a tape recorder for this purpose is undesirable, since it takes considerable time to rewrite and often violates the nature of the interview. After the initial acquaintance with the child, you can start the actual psychodiagnostic examination.

Deprivation and ways to detect it

Deprivation is a mental condition, the emergence of which is due to the vital activity of the individual in the conditions of prolonged deprivation or a substantial limitation of the possibilities to meet her vital needs. The presence of mental deprivation is due to various adverse effects that occur in life situations. In psychology, there are several theories of this kind of deprivation. Manifestations of mental deprivation can cover a wide range of personality changes: from mild oddities that do not go beyond the normal emotional picture, to very gross defeats in the development of intelligence and character. Mental deprivation can represent a motley picture of neuropathic symptoms, and sometimes manifest as expressed somatic features.

Different forms of mental deprivation in life occur simultaneously, so they can be isolated only experimentally. Most often, the following forms are distinguished:

1. Deprivation stimulus (sensory) : a reduced number of sensory stimuli or their limited variability.

2. Deprivation of values ​​(cognitive): too variable chaotic structure of the external world without a clear ordering and meaning, which does not allow you to understand, anticipate and regulate what is happening from the outside.

3. Deprivation of the emotional relationship (emotional): insufficient opportunity to establish an intimate emotional relationship to a person or break such an emotional connection, if one has already been created.

4. Identity deprivation (social): limited opportunity to assimilate an independent social role.

Great difficulties are not only the overcoming of the phenomenon of deprivation in children raised outside the family, but also the competent diagnosis of this phenomenon. In this case it is necessary to have a group collaboration of a number of employees: a pediatrician, a pedagogical psychologist, a psychologist, a social worker, a teacher, etc. In addition, since the effectiveness of therapeutic and corrective measures depends on timely recognition, it is necessary to familiarize with the revealed signs of all workers who communicate with deprived children , first of all the children's doctor, educators, social workers and children's sisters.

Diagnosis of deprivation is rather complicated, it should be carried out in several stages. An obligatory component of the diagnosis should be a medical examination. It should be borne in mind that deprivational moments can be crucial in some children directed to a pediatrician with signs of physical disorders, such as a delay in physical development. A necessary part of the medical examination is a neurological examination that helps to distinguish between deprivational consequences, on the one hand, and disorders of encephalopathic origin, on the other. Only after a medical examination of the child and the establishment of truly psychological causes of deprivation should one go first to the pathopsychological and only then to the actual psychological research.

According to experts, there is not and probably will never be a special deprivation test, so suspicions that pathopsychologists and psychologists can make must be based on the results of a rather extensive study. Long-term observation of the child and regular monitoring of development are an effective diagnostic tool that provides an opportunity to respond in time to difficulties and deviations that occur gradually in individual stages of development. To diagnose the level and type of deprivation, it is necessary to obtain a differentiated picture of the developmental level of the child's psyche in a number of separate terms: gross and fine motor skills, social behavior, speech, etc. As an example, here are some techniques that can be used for this purpose.

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