Basic psychological problems of traditional learningThe existing educational system in our country, which has deep roots, including historical ones, has undergone a number of significant transformations, state and other reforms, which continue to this day. The consideration and analysis of this complex and contradictory process is purposefully done by the didactics, experts from the field of pedagogy and its history. In the modern system and the organization of school education, there are different options, experimental, authorial and other innovative developments are being implemented, nation-wide and private, profiled, elite educational institutions operate.
Consider the learning process in its mass, most common, generalized type performance, which is called traditional. This term does not contain any negative meaning. On the contrary, many traditions of domestic education (general secondary and higher) deserve preservation, maintenance and quality development. The highlighted psychological problems of the current system of education are also not new, but in their own way classic, painful, but always topical. They involve a number of objective and subjective difficulties, sometimes imperfections in terms of both theoretical and purely practical. At the same time, many of them can be considered as a consequence of the insufficient weaponry of educational organizers and mass teachers-performers with the corresponding knowledge of human psychology or inability to apply psychology in everyday teaching and educational work.
1. The main problem lies in the inadequate activity of students in the learning process. It is not a matter of activity as such, it is not in the general intensification of students' work, but in the purposeful organization of a psychologically full, meaningful and adequately oriented activity of the teaching. The solution of this professional task is the central point of all pedagogical activity. Every experienced teacher does it in his own way, creatively, sometimes achieving remarkable results. But the task of science is to ensure that every professional, ordinary teacher is able to do this, and for this, a properly developed, reliable and everywhere implemented system is needed. Some of the most well-known variants of such psychological and pedagogical concepts are described in the next chapter, therefore we will single out now only one, but extremely significant psychological aspect of the doctrine, namely, the requirement-motivational, semantic.
Hc is an activity that does not meet the need and is not subject to the motive, which is expressed in the appropriate objectives. Like all real activities, human doctrine is politically motivated, i.e. obeys not only one motive of knowledge, but several others at the same time. In educational practice, you need to realize this, recognize it as a fact of life, and not as a theoretical psychological statement. Then the real possibilities of motivational influences on the activity of the teaching will expand substantially. A person learns not only for the acquisition of knowledge and skills, but also for communication, for competition with other people and with himself, for self-assertion and self-development. The human need for cognition, like all the others, is not inexhaustible in reality, and it is psychologically unreasonable to build on the whole educational process. Moreover, it is psychologically incorrect, inhumane to the student, because a child at school and a student in a university not only learn and learn, but also live for a long time, interact with the whole world through the education system.
Education is designed to prepare a person not only for work, but for all life. And the process of education is also life itself, part of it, and not just preparation for a future life. Hence, in the organization and content of the educational process, maximum account and feasible involvement, actualization of many human needs and motives, and the use of all possible senses of learning are necessary. Competent motivation of educational activity should be based on knowledge and consideration of the entire hierarchy of personal needs and meanings.
An indispensable condition for the formation of a full-fledged teaching is the formation of his connections with all other activities of the student, with his real behavior. In this teaching, the whole personality is involved, not only its cognitive sphere.
2. Another disadvantage of traditional teaching is considered to be its explanatory and illustrative nature. This does not mean that the teacher does not need to intelligibly explain the studied material in the process of teaching, it is not necessary to illustrate it clearly. Without this, learning is simply impossible. But here there are two interdependent questions: how to explain? and what " illustrate?". Excessively detailed, intrusive explanation can lead to unacceptable simplification of the content of the educational material. But the main thing is that it excludes the work of thinking of the students themselves, as a result of which their perception and memory are excessively involved. In a simple and wise formula: "A bad teacher gives truth, good teaches how to find it" - there is a deep psychological meaning and inexhaustible methodical task.
Necessity of using illustrations in the educational process is usually argued and confirmed by the didactic principle of visibility, which in reality is not so omnipotent and universal.
Let us cite in this connection a well-known example of AN Leont'ev, referred to elementary school. When teaching children arithmetic operations, the teacher uses carefully and brightly drawn tanks, guns, airplanes instead of the traditional visual material (balls, sticks, cubes). As far as the military period is concerned, the teacher guaranteed to ensure the attention of students in the lesson. But this attention is not to the number, to addition or subtraction, but to topical and interesting military subjects, which schoolchildren certainly carefully examined, compared, studied. At the same time due attention to the subject of training - to arithmetic, most likely, in the lesson was not. In any case, this visibility did not help him at all.
In fact, such pedagogical errors occur because of an incorrect psychological treatment of attention, the object of which is a conscious goal, and not the physical brightness or expressiveness of the object. In addition, mindfulness as behavioral concentration does not always mean the actual presence of attention (as consciousness) precisely to that subject which is meant by the teacher. The visibility can be knocking down if it does not correspond to the actual goals of the process of the organized teaching. Such over-expressive illustrations, like, for example, a full scale human skeleton, usually destroy learning activities and therefore interfere with the learning process of learning material.
3. A very common defect in traditional teaching is the overloading of the students' arbitrary memory, with a corresponding underload of their thinking and, especially, creativity. A person, of course, can memorize material, and then, at the verbatim, reproduce it, hand over, "return" The teacher along with the exam. By remembering does not mean understanding, that is. what is necessary for the subsequent use of the acquired knowledge. For this, special exercises are necessary, active involvement of thinking in the process of learning is necessary. Of course, that understanding does not happen without the participation of memory: these are related mental processes that necessarily mediate each other, but they are not the same in functions and results. You can, for example, understand something, but do not remember. Everything depends on the content of the educational material, the organization of the learning process, on the individual psychological features of the students. In any case, memory should not be considered a "central link" doctrine, although without its presence, any psyche is inactive.
It should be emphasized that in the organization of the educational process it is overloaded with an arbitrary memory of students, whereas it is possible and necessary to make wider use of the known patterns of involuntary memory of a person. The educational process can, in essence, be organized in such a way that students practically do not need to learn anything specially. The material necessary for assimilation will be as if by itself, involuntarily enter into the memory and consciousness of the trainees. To do this, the student must be given appropriate goals, i.e. controlled formation of its external, and then internal activities with educational material (see § 39.4).
As for the creativity of students in the learning process, this question is, apparently, one of the most difficult, significant and controversial. On the one hand, training is built on the solid assimilation of previous, established knowledge. On the other hand, creativity is the discovery of something new; abandonment of the old, its definite cross-out. Without exhaustive conceptual knowledge, true creativity is simply impossible. But the peremptory, dogmatic style of teaching, of course, does not contribute to the formation and development of students' autonomy and creativity. The teacher in his work must be a free-thinking, intellectually confident and simultaneously searching, doubting, creative person - this is the main condition for the formation and psychological support of the creativity of students.
Certain prerequisites for creative activity are available to every normal child. These are his famous fantasies, the period of word-making, irrepressible interest in cognition, colorful imagination, craving for visual activity. It is important to support and develop such aspirations and psychological prerequisites in the course of a purposeful, compulsory and therefore limited in some way the program of instruction, especially since in psychology there is a view according to which all thinking is the discovery of something new, and therefore simultaneously an act of creativity.
4. A special problem with traditional learning is the lack of controllability of the process and result. For all the methodological perfection of the school curriculum, the process of education that it realizes can not be fully controlled and controlled, which is caused by a whole set of circumstances, both objective and purely human, subjective origin. This includes the multifactor determinism, the variability of the psyche itself, and the impossibility of complete control over the influences of all external influences, and the multidimensional nature of the goals of education, and the problems of objective evaluation (or measurement) of its results. The realization of the maximum possible controllability of the process, and, accordingly, the result of training is achieved by a fundamental change in the methodology and of technology itself, and not just in technology or in private teaching methods. Thus, the internal organization of the educational material itself is changing, the principles and methods of constructing the process of its assimilation are qualitatively transformed (technology according to DB El'konin). Behind all this, there must be serious theoretical and empirical justifications, the corresponding psychological models of both the learning process and the individual (see § 39.1).
5. As an inevitable difficulty, the problems, the costs of any mass training, is the forced orientation to the so-called middle (according to the abilities and abilities) of the student. In the absence of quantitatively strict measurements, almost any quality in people is usually cultivated in three levels: low, medium and high. In reality, everything is much more complicated, and in terms of the degree of expression of any mental property in a large mass of people, there are not three polar steps, but a continuous and special statistical distribution (domain). The sharp qualitative, typological gradations of people are at times similar to a label, and therefore greatly simplify our understanding of the process or property under investigation.
Medium students always have a majority (according to the laws of probability theory), so in their work the teacher is directed at them, not on the "weak" or strong & quot ;. It seems inevitable and quite reasonable, only from this in own way suffer and the first, and the second, and the third. In fact, this problem can be solved only by a deep individualization of training, which is practically unattainable in the conditions of a mass educational process. It is possible and necessary that every teacher, maximum consideration of the basic age, all sorts of typical and actually individual-psychological characteristics of students. The problem of individual differences in the success of assimilation of the teaching material is softened, smoothed out in the conditions of special forms of developmental instruction. This does not mean that all students become equally successful, but the "weak" becomes smaller, and strong - more than in the conditions of traditional education.
Of course, in modern United States education there are many other topical and important psychological problems, the discussion of which goes beyond the limited scope of the textbook. The main question is to ensure (at the state level and in every single educational institution-school, college, university) an indispensable systematic and equal participation of modern psychological science in the organization, implementation, and even more so the reform of the educational process. To this is called more than one generation of United States psychologists. To this objectively leads the entire historically observable world trend of complication and development of both education and human civilization itself.
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