A. Bass, who adopted a number of provisions of his predecessors, shared the concepts of "aggression" and hostility and defined the latter as a "reaction that develops negative feelings and negative assessments of people and events." Creating his own questionnaire, differentiating the manifestations of aggression and hostility, A. Bass and A. Darki identified the following types of reactions:
1. Physical aggression - the use of physical force against another person.
2. Indirect aggression - in a roundabout way directed at another person or not directed at anyone.
3. Annoyance - readiness to display negative feelings at the slightest excitement (short temper, rudeness).
4. Negativism - an oppositional manner in behavior, manifested from passive resistance to an active struggle against established customs and laws.
5. Resentment - envy and hatred of others for real and imaginary actions.
6. Suspicion is a negative reaction ranging from mistrust and caution to people to the belief that other people are planning and doing harm.
7. Verbal aggression is the expression of negative feelings both through form (screaming, squealing), and through the content of verbal responses (curses, threats).
8. Feelings of guilt - expresses a possible belief of the subject that he is a bad person, does evil, and also feels remorse.
The Bassa-Darkey questionnaire consists of 75 statements, to which the subject answers "yes" or no & quot ;. In accordance with the instruction, he puts the plus sign, if he agrees with the statement, and the minus sign, if he does not agree.
BASS SURVEY TEXT - GIFTS
1. At times, I can not cope with the desire to harm others.
2. Sometimes I gossip about people I do not like.
3. I'm easily annoyed, but quickly calmed down.
4. If I'm not asked for something good, I will not do it.
5. I do not always get what I need.
6. I do not know what people say about me behind my back.
7. If I do not approve of the behavior of friends, I let them feel it.
8. When I happened to deceive somebody, I felt painful remorse.
9. It seems to me that I am not capable of hitting a person.
10. I never get irritated enough to throw things.
11. I'm always indulgent with other people's shortcomings.
12. If I do not like the rule, I want to break it.
13. Others can almost always use favorable circumstances.
14. I'm keeping watchful with people who treat me somewhat friendlier than I expected.
15. I often disagree with people.
16. Sometimes thoughts come to mind that I'm ashamed of.
17. If someone first hits me, I will not answer him.
18. When I'm annoyed, I slam the doors.
19. I'm much more irritable than it seems.
20. If someone imagines himself to be the boss, I always act against him.
21. I am a little upset by my fate.
22. I think that many people do not like me.
23. I can not refrain from a dispute if people do not agree with me.
24. People evading from work should feel guilty.
25. The one who insults me and my family, is asking for a fight.
26. I'm not capable of rough jokes.
27. I am enraged when I am mocked.
28. When people build themselves out of their bosses, I do my best not to be conceited.
29. Almost every week I see someone who I do not like.
30. Quite a lot of people envy me.
31. I demand that people respect me.
32. I am depressed by the fact that I do little for my parents.
33. People who constantly harass you are worth it to be "clicked on the nose".
34. I'm never gloomy with anger.
35. If they treat me worse than I deserve, I'm not upset.
36. If someone drives me crazy, I do not pay attention.
37. Although I do not show this, I sometimes get jealous.
38. Sometimes it seems to me that they are laughing at me.
39. Even if I get angry, I do not resort to the "strong" quot; expressions.
40. I want my sins to be forgiven.
41. I rarely give change, even if someone hits me.
42. When it turns out not in my opinion, I sometimes take offense.
43. Sometimes people annoy me with one of their presence.
44. There are no people that I really hate.
45. My principle: "Never trust outsiders".
46. If someone annoys me, I'm ready to say what I think about it.
47. I do a lot of things, which I regret later.
48. If I get angry, I can hit someone.
49. Since my childhood, I have never shown outbursts of anger.
50. I often feel like a powder keg, ready to explode.
51. If everyone knew what I was feeling, I would be considered a person with whom it is not easy to work.
52. I always think about what secret reasons make people do something nice for me.
53. When they shout at me, I start screaming back.
54. Failures grieve me.
55. I fight at least and not more often than others.
56. I can recall the cases when I was so angry that I grabbed the thing that came into my hand and broke it.
57. Sometimes I feel I'm ready to start the fight first.
58. Sometimes I feel that life is unfair to me.
59. I used to think that most people are telling the truth, but now I do not believe in it.
60. I swear only with anger.
61. When I do wrong, my conscience torments me.
62. If I need to apply physical strength to protect my rights, I apply it.
63. Sometimes I express my anger by knocking my fist on the table.
64. I'm rude to people I do not like.
65. I do not have enemies who would like to harm me.
66. I do not know how to put a person in place, even if he deserves it.
67. I often think I lived wrong.
68. I know people who can bring me to a fight.
69. I'm not upset about the little things.
70. It rarely occurs to me that people try to anger me or insult me.
71. I often only threaten people, although I'm not going to put threats into execution.
72. Recently, I became a bore.
73. In a dispute, I often raise my voice.
74. I usually try to hide my bad attitude towards people.
75. I'd rather agree with something than I'll argue.
When compiling the questionnaire, the authors used the following principles:
1) the question can only concern one form of aggression;
2) questions are formulated in such a way as to minimize the influence of public approval of the answer to the question.
The answers are evaluated on eight scales as follows:
1. Physical aggression:
• yes = 1, no = 0: 1, 25, 31, 41, 48, 55, 62, 68;
• no = 1, yes = 0: 9 and 7.
2. Indirect aggression:
• yes = 1, no = 0: 2, 10, 18, 34, 42, 56, 63;
• no = 1, yes = 0: 26, 49.
• yes = 1, no = 0: 3, 19, 27, 43, 50, 57, 64, 72;
• no = 1, yes = 0: 11, 35, 69.
• yes = 1, no = 0: 4, 12, 20, 28;
• no = 1, yes = 0: 36.
5. Resentment: yes = 1, no = 0: 5, 13, 21, 29, 37, 44, 51, 58.
• yes = 1, no = 0: 6, 14, 22, 30, 38, 45, 52, 59;
• yes = 0, no = 1: 33, 66, 74, 75.
7. Verbal aggression:
• yes = 1, no = 0: 7, 15, 23, 31, 46, 53, 60, 71, 73;
• yes = 0, no = 1: 33, 66, 74, 75.
8. Feelings of guilt: yes = 1, no = 0: 5, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 47, 54, 61, 67.
The index of hostility includes the 5th and 6th scales, and the index
Aggressiveness (direct or motivational) includes scales 1, 3, 7th.
The norm of aggressiveness is the value of its index, equal to 21 ± 4. The norm of hostility is 6, 5-7 ± 3. Attention is drawn to the possibility of achieving a certain value, showing the degree of manifestation of aggressiveness.
Using this technique, it is necessary to remember that aggressiveness as a property of a person and aggression as an act of behavior can be understood in the context of a psychological analysis of the motivationally-demanding sphere of the individual. Therefore, the Bassa Darka questionnaire should be used in conjunction with other methods: personal tests of mental states (Cattell, Spielberger), projective techniques (Lusher), etc.
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