Batteries tests special abilities - Psychodiagnostics. Theory and practice

Batteries for special abilities tests

In addition to using separate tests of special abilities, in the West battery tests, are widely used. groups of tests that measure the relatively independent characteristics of individuals, which together contribute to the successful implementation of certain activities. With the help of batteries, it is possible to obtain test profile profiles for relatively independent essential characteristics, identified through factor analysis.

The first experience of creating such complex capacity batteries was the Chicago Primary Mental Abilities Tests PMA tests. They were based on L. Thurstone's concept of the existence of 12 independent primary mental faculties, which underlie the success of learning activity. First published in 1941, they were intended for high school students and colleges. Later this battery was improved (1962), it included tests for younger ages. However, due to the presence of a number of significant shortcomings (low reliability and validity, inadequate standards, the unreasonableness of a number of indicators, the excessive dependence of results on speed), it has now been supplanted by more modern techniques of the same type.

One of them is a complex battery of tests of different abilities (Differential Aptitude Tests - DAT). This battery, published in 1947, was then repeatedly revised; it is intended for counseling students of 8-12 grades in the process of their education and vocational guidance. It is applied in two equivalent forms S and T, each of which includes eight subtests.

Example jobs

1. Verbal thinking.

Select the required pairs of words to fill in the gaps in the sentence. The first word of the pair fills in the pass at the beginning of the sentence, the second at the end:

... in the evening, and breakfast ...

A. Dinner - corner.

B. Mild is the morning.

C. The door is an angle.

D. The flow is joy.

E. Supper - morning. The correct answer is E.

2. Numerical abilities.

For each task, find the correct answer: Add 13 and 12

A. 14.

B. 25.

C. 16. [). 59.

E. None of the above numbers. The correct answer is B.

3. Abstract thinking.

Each task consists of a series of figures that change according to a particular rule. Having understood the rule of changing the figures in each job, you should find the continuation of a number of figures, choosing the answer from the five suggested options.

4. Speed ​​and accuracy of perception.

One of the five proposed character combinations is underlined in each test task. On the answer sheet, the subject should have noted exactly the same combination.

5. Technical thinking.

Each task is a depicted situation of a technical nature and a short question, the answer to which requires technical understanding.

6. Spatial relationships.

In the tasks for the displayed sweep of the geometric figure, you need to find all four options.

7. Literacy.

Please indicate which word is spelled correctly and which is incorrect.

Correctly

Error

A. calf

X

Q. cow

X

(The x-symbols indicate correct answers.)

8. Using the language.

Specify in which of the lettered parts of the sentence contains an error and mark this part on the answer sheet with the x character. If the sentence does not contain an error, select H.

A. Do we need to/leave/work/next week?

The DAT battery is standardized, tested for validity and reliability on a sample, a representative population of US students in grades 8-12. The sample included more than 64,000 students from 76 schools from 33 states and the District of Columbia. Data on the validity of the DAT are several thousand factors, most of which relate to the prognostic validity of achievements in school and the success of subsequent education (in universities, specialized courses and colleges, etc.). It is recognized that this battery does not badly assess the capabilities of individuals in general educational activities. However, the educational criterion does not always allow us to predict professional achievements, but these data are not enough for professional criteria.

Therefore, for the purposes of professional counseling, other methods are used. One of the most recognized is the Battery of tests of general abilities (G & aacut; ral Aptitude Test Battery - GATB). It was developed by the US Employment Service specifically for use in the activities of consultants in public institutions. With this battery, nine factors are measured, including 12 tests. The following factors are present in the GATB:

1) general learning abilities (estimated by the total score of three tests - vocabulary, mathematical thinking and three-dimensional space perception);

2) verbal abilities (measured by the vocabulary test, in which the subject must specify which of the two words in each set has the same or opposite meaning);

3) numeric abilities (evaluated by computation tests and mathematical thinking);

4) spatial abilities (measured by a three-dimensional space perception test, including tasks to understand the reflection of three-dimensional objects in two-dimensional space and the ability to represent the result of motion in three dimensions)

5) form perception (measured by two tests in which the subject compares parts drawings and geometric shapes);

6) mental perception (the tests are similar to those used to evaluate the perception of a form, but the names are compared, and not the drawings and forms);

7) motor coordination (measured by a simple test in which the subject makes certain marks in a series of squares with a pencil);

8) finger motor skills (measured by two tests in which the subject connects and rivets the rivets and washers respectively);

9) manual motor skills (estimated using two tests in which the subject moves and flips chips on the board).

The entire battery lasts about 2.5 hours.

The battery of tests of general abilities is standardized on a sample of 4,000 people, a representative population of US workers and employees. Systems of indicators were found in which for each profession there are established features that contribute to its mastery and their minimum permissible levels. For example, for an accountant it is necessary to obtain indicators of not less than 105 by the factor of general abilities for learning and not less than 115 by the factor of numerical abilities. For a locksmith, the minimum indicator for the total capacity for learning factor is 85, spatial abilities and manual motor skills 85 and mental perception 75.

In consultation, the profile of the individual's indicators is compared with the normative indicators of professions, and those professions whose normative indices are reached or exceeded by the subject can be recommended for counseling in counseling.

The indicators of different types of reliability range from 0.80 to 0.90. Validity coefficients are satisfactory. The disadvantages of SATV include the orientation of tests for high-speed performance, as well as the non-representation of many abilities. For example, this battery does not evaluate technical abilities, resourcefulness and some other features. Therefore, it does not cover those professions where these characteristics are required.

In addition, it was found that the test profiles of highly successful members of the same profession may differ. Consequently, when comparing individual profiles with the normative for certain professions, it is not always possible to ascertain the availability of the professional suitability of the individual. This is due to the fact that it is possible to compensate for some features missing for successful performance of activities at the expense of others. As already mentioned above, one and the same level of achievement can be achieved in different ways. Human individuality is characterized by high plasticity, variability, ability to develop and improve. Variability refers to the world of many professions, to the nature of the demands that they place on workers. Let us once again recall the decisive role of motivation, interests, human inclinations.

All of the above explains why the validation of the learning criteria for individual professions gives validity coefficients significantly higher than the validation by the criteria of professional success. Diagnostics recognize that GATB indicators can predict the success of professional training and the effectiveness of work in the initial period (up to two years of experience).

To facilitate the use of indicators of this battery for counseling, professions, the implementation of which requires similar features, in the 70's. XX century. were combined into relatively small in number of types. Such types have been allocated not much more than 60. For each type of normative indicators were established on the three most important characteristics. The final system of indicators was called the Occupational Aptitude Pattern ( ), covering thousands of specific professions and specialties.

To work with high school students, as well as all those who showed interest in army specialties, the US Army Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery > ), including 10 tests that diagnose such parameters as general science knowledge, understanding of instruction paragraphs, knowledge of mathematics, technical understanding, awareness in electronics and automotive engineering, etc.

The Armed Forces Qualification Test - AFQT is used to select and distribute recruits in the US Army. In addition, each of the army services (air force, ground forces, etc.), using the subtests of the Qualification Test, develops its methods and combined indicators for them for the selection and distribution of personnel in accordance with their criteria.

The US Employment Service is developing special batteries to facilitate the testing procedure and the entry of illiterate and culturally undeveloped people into special batteries, which use special procedures to help you navigate through the test, correctly understand its tasks and character. These batteries include materials and conversation plans for relieving anxiety. For these categories of subjects, special brochures are published explaining what it means to perform a test well, including examples of tasks and answer forms of this type that are used in the GATB. Such batteries developed for specific categories of the population include Basic Professional Literacy Tests ( BOLT), including vocabulary tests, comprehension of read, arithmetic computations and mathematical thinking. The values ​​of this battery are estimated in accordance with the requirements of different groups of professions, rather than school education.

Concluding the discussion of tests and batteries of special abilities developed in the West (mainly in the US), we note that this area of ​​diagnosis is one of the most developed. A large number of tests and batteries of special abilities have been created and are being used both in the education system and for professional purposes. Despite the generally positive assessment of the capabilities of these tests and batteries, psychodiagnostics continue to collect information on their reliability and validity, refine the parameters of samples for which they are representative, find out the impact of various factors affecting their performance, improve test procedures and indicators, develop special methods of using these indicators.

At the same time, psychodiagnostics increasingly come to the conclusion that forecasts about academic and professional success are possible only on the basis of aggregate information about the individual, when the results of the capacity tests are not considered in isolation, but only as one of the aspects of the evaluation along with the indicators of personal methods, tests of achievements, biographical questionnaires, etc. So, E. Giselli found that when examining taxi drivers, the correlation between their labor efficiency and the indicators of special abilities tests was equal s 0.22. But if you take into account the interests and professional motivation, then this coefficient can be significantly increased - up to 0.664 for drivers with a high level of motivation. In another study by R. Groom and N. Endler, it was found that the performance of students with high anxiety is more correlated with the test scores of (r = 0.63), than at quiet students (г = 0,19).

It is important to point out that Western diagnosticians now recognize the dependence of tests of abilities on the training of individuals, on their acquired skills and knowledge. Thus, the researchers came to the conclusion that the results of the Test of Judgments on Meyer's art are subject to the significant influence of professional training (correlations from 0.4 to 0.69 between the level of art education and the Meyer test). The susceptibility of the results of the Test measures the musical endowments of Sishora to the influence of practice and training. Therefore, increasingly psychodiagnostics tend not to use the term ability in the names of this test group, replacing it with the terms efficiency & quot ;, success and others. It is believed that it is better to abandon the concept of "ability" with respect to tests and talk about the differences in knowledge and skills, allowing in certain conditions to achieve certain achievements.

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