Using relevant theories and good examples, analyse how music remedy can help to treat autism disorder
Music remedy is rooted in the work of psychoanalysts (Freud, Jung, and Watzalwick), music professors (Willems, Dalcroze) allied with in-depth music studies (Schaeffer, Sachs).
Definition -Although there are different conceptual models in music remedy, it is possible to recognize the music methods intended limited to ill patients from music practices used as a tool for personal development and are therefore accessible to all or any.
Music therapy is a "non-verbal psychotherapy that uses corporo - sonoro - nonverbal expressions to build up a relationship between your therapist and those who need support to enhance the quality of the lives and reintegrate into culture. It also aspires to produce interpersonal, ethnic and educational changes in the ecosystem and also to act on the primary elimination of community health. "(The Benenzon model).
Music remedy comes against psychoanalytic theory which conceives terms as essential to the revelation of the unconscious. It is based in simple fact on the development of the partnership and the healing process through non-verbal communication called ' analogue communication ' by Watzalwick.
Music therapy is conceived as psychotherapy, in other words a relationship between two individuals, one of whom, by his knowledge and experience, will try to change the other by influencing him.
-The development of music remedy (historical perspectives)
Most traditions across the world in a way or another say: In the beginning was the Word. If science speaks of a big bang theory to describe the beginning of the universe, it is not 100 % pure coincidence.
In the Egyptian record, the god Thoth got created the world with a loud cry. Inside the Old Testament, it's the audio of trumpets that damaged Jericho. From the earliest times, the sound is described as an innovative or destructive element.
Some of Plato and Pythagoras ideas acquired created a real focus on something based on philosophical harmony. In their idea, music was part of included mathematics.
In the Greek civilization, music therapists already existed plus they were suggesting various musical instruments to impact the spirits of people. "Based on the evil, they find the aulos (old drum) in an ecstatic and moving game or the special and harmonious lyre. " Patrick Alderman (1981) - Music and Medication - Stock Music.
In Chinese school of thought, Confucius stated: "Enjoy music, it's the formation of internal harmony. " This practice is still employed by the Tibetan lamas.
In Africa, traditional music, very rhythmic and noisy, can be used for ceremonies but also to generate altered areas of mind.
And since World Warfare 1, science is having a new go through the ramifications of music. This research is shown mainly in the works of Anglo -Saxon authors such as Schoen and Gatewood (1927), Hevner (1936), Carpuco (1952) and Cattell ( 1953). In parallel, several French authors centered on this is of music plus some of them attempted to develop a theory. Included in these are Frances, Imberty, Jost, Pratt, Simon and Werbick.
Music remedy and mental illness (music as a special way of communication can help to explore the internal world of folks with mental disorder?)
In clinics and pension homes, we address more and more people burning off their autonomy with methods of music remedy. Musical equipment have a electricity of fascination on real people and are being used more frequently to encourage older people to break their isolation by participating in musical activities in an organization. People experiencing severe mental health problems respond perfectly to music too. Often aggressive behaviours are assimilated through music. Children with intellectual disabilities have shown to develop, it seems that music arouses in them an unexpected receptivity and presently science is checking out all avenues to build up its curative powers.
-Music remedy and autism
Music remedy is a relatively new approach to treatment for autistic patients, but often ignored when different options are discussed. Music therapy Patients often show advancements in character and learning. Music attaches to the non- verbal part in our brain, which makes it an excellent treatment for disorders in which the patient has difficulty communicating, such as autism.
Music therapy works well since it can be used together with public skills training. Many video games can be made using music to help improve the social and behavioural skills. By pushing eyes contact while performing or using instruments, music remedy can help autistic children to break down social barriers with people.
Music therapy can help children and aged autistic patients to build up talk skills. Music is a way to connect verbal and nonverbal functions in the mind. Autism may have various types of talk disorders. Some can only just hum, grunt, or make other sounds, while others are taken to replicate absurd sentences, babbling and screaming. Others again come to develop sentences to communicate with the entire world, although they generally lack emotion. People with autism are known to speak in a monotone. However, no matter how the individual behaves with talk, they might take part in a music therapy, tapping rhythms or humming.
Autism patients are usually considered particularly suitable for music therapy. Some, for example, employ a high pitch. Others may play perfectly a particular device, with little teaching. Even if your son or daughter shows no capacity to be a musical genius, you will often find that the autistic person has musical skills beyond his other abilities. A music therapist can use music as a way to link this type of learning with other types of learning, not limited to the introduction of language and social behavioural development as recently reviewed, but also as a way to speak their emotions and develop memory.
Using these techniques in conjunction with other remedies, music therapy can do wonders with autism. Skilled experts may use music to instruct children and others how to speak non-verbally, which makes learning easier for patients.
Therapeutical methods to autism:
Studies have reported results of music therapy with children and children in the treating autism. The reported benefits include increased vocalizations, verbalizations, and gestures, understanding vocabulary, and attention-related task, serves of communication, symbolic play skills and personal care, as well as decreased echolalia (automatic repetition of phrases as we understand them). Experts also observed increased body recognition and coordination, and lowered stress and anxiety. However, results have been inconclusive in respect of the result on the behaviour problems. In addition, it remains important to obviously establish the long-term benefits.
To plan an treatment, music therapists choose their activities from an array of strategies and possible musical encounters (improvisation, hearing music, instrumental performance, cognitive learning through music, etc. . . ) according to the autism patient. With regards to the material used, the therapist can create music or tracks himself, or sketch on the repertoire of music for children; it is abundant with simple ditties, has regular repeats that help in teaching exercises. As for musical instruments available to the participants, it could be, in addition to those utilized by the therapist, synthesizer, various percussion, solid wood xylophone, flutes, a "rain keep "etc. . . Once the person is comfortable, the therapist can include various devices in the exploration of the surroundings made by the child. Gradually, once there's a non-verbal communication through equipment, the presenter can get started to encourage a form of verbal communication directly related to the music, if the case is suitable.
Favourite music can be utilized for a variety of cooperation activities in order to work on social behaviour. In an organization, to get a ball in one child to another, the audio of music or participating in the drum set in place would be, for example, the means used to create interaction. We can also practice problem solving utilizing a dotted record of sound files and music, etc. . . . Slowly and gradually, new actions are unveiled (walking, sitting down, sleeping, etc. . . ) Plus the speaker gradually reduces its own participation. After the music is totally eliminated, the child has been able to construct sentences in response to questions "The facts? " and " what's the doll doing ? " this learning was probably facilitated by the existence of music and the view of another associated thing. Notice also that, even if the words of some songs do not necessarily appear very important to everyday use, the easy fact of the match can be an important step in instructing some children. Regarding to Myra J. Staum (1997), pursuing an involvement, if a student forgets what or sentences bought, it is conceivable to remind him by causing him hear the song again.
The finding of his own body and the space around it is another aspect in which music therapy can be handy in the autistic specific. Some therapists use e. g. " marches " and bring the kids to walk to the master of the second option; music and another rate is then used to ensure that subjects create a repeating routine when walking. Many autistic children are also invited to boogie: in so doing, they are encouraged to trust the loudspeaker, to develop a much better vision contact and a greater awareness of physical contact. In the same way, dance to different styles of music, the average person can figure out how to become familiar with change and synchronization, etc. . . .
As a sum-up, we can easily see there are dozens of ways in which music can be utilized for healing purposes for children with autism. Many aspects, from the birth of a collaboration till extended durations of attention through words acquisition or socially appropriate behaviour, are likely to be among the goals achieved in a music remedy program ; To achieve this, you merely need tolerance, time and a skilled speaker.
- improvising (group and individual)
With music therapy in autism, It is not just about "playing a tune" to entertain the patient. It is a focus on the audio, the waves and the vibration. It will have a sizable selection of improvisation in all its forms, you need to include the best possible quantity of musical aesthetics. This consists of American and non-European settings, rhythms and varied tempos, classical tones of the tool and tone of voice or noises using harmonics, different noises, many major tips, modest, traditional, pentatonic modes, exatoniques, atonal music, a wide range of frequencies of the most serious to the most serious of the tool etc. . . .
Active musical remedy includes expressions with ideal music instruments. It could be self-expression or specific exercises that every has a function. We are able to thus work on the exchange and communication, irritation, recovery of personal image, storage area and focus improvement in cognitive abilities, body awareness, imagination and imagination, fine electric motor skills and body address, autonomy.
- dance and movement
Reflection in and on the physical, emotional and understated body can be an essential aspect of dance remedy and movement. Through improvisation and creation, it establishes new body experience in a wider field of movement notion by more specific specificities. This practice promotes the direct expression, preverbal, nonverbal and verbal communication and the surroundings. It handles the senses problems and diseases predicated on experience, stimulating the capability to do something and personal ingenuity. The dance remedy and activity brings the individual to a healthy dynamic.
As discussed Nicole Harbonnier-Topin, Teacher of motion research and director of mature cycle programs of the Section of Boogie at the School of Quebec at Montreal, party therapy consists of several systems of neurological function: the awakening and break, emotional rules, implicit and explicit storage area, the mirror system and the integration of the right brain versus kept brain. As the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems are involved in the process of movement, resulting in regulation of emotions that will help counteract the anxiousness plus some types of unhappiness. There is definitely a body awareness that brings us into seductive relationship with ourselves. So when we dance, there's a release of tensions and stresses which are in our body's ram.
Autism: People with autism, when they apply the instructions in dance therapy consultations, find the awareness needed and make the right goes, and with an guarantee that they do not necessarily have lifestyle.
(Please use relevant ideas and example to describe why these musical interventions work treatment for autism disorder)
Criticism of music therapy
So far, music therapy proved to be beneficial. It didn't show any harm or any recession of the patients.
Dance remedy can deal with our problems carefully and carefully. It is a powerful for physical and mental wellbeing "tool". Expertise is extra to take pleasure to boogie.
Dance therapy Numbers are diverse which remedy has been one of the techniques used in caring for sick people and has multiple indications: the ordinary neurosis with autism, through stress and anxiety, despair, addictions, psychosomatic diseases, psychiatric disorders, light and profound, engine and mental disabilities.
All dance genres are possible.
- bio-dance gestures predicated on touch and feel, reviving the notion of tenderness
- primitive party - succession of repeated movements promoting relaxation of your brain.
- shamanic dance inspired from rituals of primitive societies.
Music is a flexible tool for intervention with autism
Music therapy has been proven beneficial in a number of areas: before it has shown its positive influence on blood pressure, pain perception, respiratory problems, stress, etc. .
In the specific case of autism and people with pervasive developmental disorders, music is certainly a fascinating option for several reasons.
First, the music is a kind of nonverbal communication; it is a perfect way to contact children experiencing complications in communicating, which is a quite typical feature in autism. Non-verbal and non-threatening character of the medium is also an asset. Alternatively, the music acts as an all natural reinforcer, which can help students develop skills that aren't musical; everyone is likely to respond favorably to at least one kind of music. It really is a adaptable tool that can echo the average person skills of each individual.
In another area, it has been noted consistently that autistic individuals often have a specific sensitivity to music. Some will react to certain does sound; others however come with an "absolute" ear for music, a property that could make many music artists envious!
In summary, several reasons make music an interesting healing tool for autism.
Music captivates and holds attention- it stimulates and uses several regions of the brain.
Music structures time in a and understandable way ("this is actually the song of goodbye, the time is almost over!")
It provides a pleasant and meaningful framework for rehearsals essential for some learning
It creates a safe and organized social framework for the verbal and nonverbal communication
This is a very effective memory aid
It works with and stimulates movement
It facilitates discussion and promotes self-expression
It embeds itself in storage area and emotions
It often helps bring about a feeling of community since it unites folks of all skill levels, all able to participate in a means or another.
Bunt, L. (1994) Music Therapy: A SKILL beyond Words. London: Routledge.
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