Blank methods for diagnosing lability and strength of the nervous system in thought-speech activity
The use of instrumentation techniques in production or at school causes great difficulties, and sometimes their use is generally not possible. Therefore, there was a need to create such diagnostic tools that, meeting strict scientific criteria, could be used in non-laboratory settings and were suitable for mass examination. Under the leadership of KM Gurevich, a colleague and follower of BM Teplov, blank methods were developed that diagnose manifestations of the basic properties of the nervous system in thought-speech activity. Comparing the new methods with those that Teplov-Nebylitsyn school named the basic, reference methods for determining the basic properties of the nervous system, it was possible to select the most successful diagnostic tests of the SNS manifestation at the level of thought-speech activity.
Some diagnostic techniques developed by textologists, after appropriate modifications, could be applied as a test for the diagnosis of manifestations of the properties of the nervous system in thought-speech activity.
In order to be able to identify such features of thought-speech activity that are due to the SNS from the overall test result, it is necessary to equate the content of the methodology for the subjects. This can be achieved if, firstly, we use material that is simple enough, elementary, accessible to all who know knowledge even in the volume of an incomplete secondary school. Secondly, if we more strictly approach the composition of the sample, to ensure that it is relatively homogeneous in terms of education of the subjects and their professional activities (humanitarian, technical, etc.). Why is it important to consider the composition of the sample in the diagnosis of SNA manifestations in thought-speech activity? Although verbal techniques affect the very minimum level of knowledge that all persons should have after six to seven years of training, and in this sense they have equal opportunities for successful performance of tasks, it should not be forgotten that the skill to perform even the simplest mental operations can not be all the same. Therefore, it is necessary to strive to ensure that the sample includes subjects who are close in scope and level of education. It can be assumed that people who have training in performing speech-speech operations will be more successful at coping with verbal techniques than those who do not have such practice. With correctly selected samples, in each of them it is possible to distinguish groups of subjects that differ sharply in the SNA (for example, strong - weak), although a formal quantitative criterion by which one can judge the severity of the diagnosed property may be in each sample.
If you meet these requirements, you can expect that the quantitative indicators of the tasks will reflect the natural, neurophysiological characteristics of the subjects.
Blank methods were developed that diagnose manifestations in the thinking-speech activity of such basic SNS as lability (VT Kozlova) and strength (VA Danilov).
By the lability of the nervous system is understood as the rate of occurrence and disappearance of nervous processes in the cerebral cortex in response to an external stimulus.The manifestations of the lability-inertia of the nervous system find expression in the high-speed, tempo performance of a variety of activities (for example, in the dynamics of speech expression of thoughts, in the rate of actualization of existing knowledge, in the speed of response to external stimuli, in productivity in a situation related to with a time limit, in the ease of adaptation to new activities, etc.).
Two methods for diagnosing lability have been developed: Execution of Instructions and Code & quot ;. They require the subject to be quickly included in the activity after the instruction is given to him, i.e. a certain speed of occurrence of the thought-speech process; Immediate transition to another task implies the termination of the previous process and the emergence of a new process replacing it. Consequently, the techniques are addressed to the dynamic characteristic of thought-speech activity, which is determined by the speed of the onset and disappearance of the nervous process and, thus, is directly associated with the lability of the nervous system, being its function, all other things being equal. The methods are designed for any age, starting from the age of 14.
Procedure Execution of instructions is a modification of the American test, taken from a series known as "Alpha" (S. Hull, 1928). He does not actualize any specific logical kind of mental operations. Success depends on fast and correct implementation of simple instructions. The specificity of the test is to quickly and accurately grasp them and subsequently implement them, extremely simple in meaning and carried out by several movements of the pencil on the card or letterhead.
The methodology used mainly the principle of drawing quests from the series "Alpha", but the procedure for its implementation was substantially changed. First, each task was assigned a shorter period of time than in the "Alpha" series, and secondly, the intervals between tasks were strictly fixed and minimal. As soon as the time allotted for the execution of the task expired, immediately followed the instruction to perform the next.
The procedure for carrying out the procedure is as follows: the subject (the diagnosis is carried out individually) consistently show cards that show figures, letters, geometric shapes, and so on. There may be empty cards. Before the beginning of the experiment, he is given a general instruction: "You will be told what you should do on each card. Listen very carefully, as instructions will not be repeated. As soon as you say "started", you begin to work. As soon as you say "stop" and " - stop work, put this card and take the next one. There is not enough time for each task. If you do not keep up at this time, it is considered that the task is not completed. Be attentive and work with maximum speed & quot ;. Further with the subject test exercises are conducted. As soon as it turns out that the experimental conditions are assimilated, the main experience begins. The time for each task is fixed by the stopwatch. It varies depending on the nature of the tasks from 2 to 5 seconds. The subject does not know how much time it takes to complete the assignment. The experiment is conducted at a high rate: immediately after the command stop the next job is read. The experiment time is 7 minutes. The indicator is the sum of incorrectly performed tasks and tasks that were not performed at all.
Examples Card 28. 13245748
Instruction: draw a line from number 1 to digit 7 so that it passes over even numbers and under odd. Have begun! (Pa execution will be 4 seconds).
Instruction: above the line, place the down arrow and below the line the right arrow. Have begun! (The work takes 2 seconds).
Method Code represents a modification of the test published in L. Thurstone's book.
In this test, the subject needs to replace the symbols with numbers, i.e. the ability to accurately and quickly perform decoding operations is diagnosed. In the developed version of the technique is as follows: the subject receives a form on which the numbers from 0 to 9 are written consecutively; under each digit is its symbol (in the form of dots and dashes). Then the subject is presented with cards showing only conditional images, and it is suggested to write the corresponding figures as soon as possible. A blank with numbers and symbols lies before the subject.
After the trial exercises, the main experience begins. In total, 10 cards are presented, each with four series of symbols (each series consists of three symbols), so during the experiment the subject must decipher 40 series of symbols. The execution time is the same for all cards and is 11 seconds. The subject is not known this time. The whole experiment lasts 2 minutes. The indicator is the number of errors: incorrectly deciphered and missing symbols.
One of the main characteristics of the strength of the nervous system is the ability of the nerve cells of the large hemispheres to withstand more or less prolonged and concentrated excitation, without going into a braking state. This ability was used as an indicator of strength in thought-speech activity. We used well-known tests "Exclusion", "Formation of analogies", variant of associative experiment, modified in accordance with the research task.
The dynamics of the working capacity of the subject during the resolution of these tasks was diagnosed. Thought operations performed the role of intellectual load and activated second-signal activity. The methods are designed for any age, starting from the age of 14.
Exception represents a set of tasks, each of which consists of 5 words. The subject must find and name the "superfluous" a word that does not fit the four others. After that, he should immediately begin to solve the next task. The time for solving each task is limited, and if the subject does not have time to find the superfluous word, at the command of the experimenter Next He must immediately begin to solve the next task, without delaying on the unresolved. Before the beginning of the main part of the procedure, the subject performed training tasks.
The time allotted for each task is 10 seconds. All tasks are printed on 5 consecutively submitted forms, for 35 tasks on each.
A horse, a rooster, a ram, a cow, a goat.
Plum, apple, maple, gooseberry, currant.
Methodology Formation of analogies represents a set of tasks, each of which consists of three words. On the left are pairs of sample words, and on the right one word is given to which the subject must independently select a pair with a similar, same connection as in the first two words. You need to name it and immediately begin to solve the next task.
The time allotted for each task is 5 seconds. All tasks are printed on 5 consecutively submitted forms, 40 tasks in each. And in this case, before proceeding with the tasks, the subject underwent a training session.
The indicator of the dynamics of efficiency in both methods is the ratio of the time of execution of tasks on the last form to the time of execution of tasks on the first form.
The bird is flying. Snake - ... Dress - tailor. Shoes - ...
In the & Associate Experiment repeated repetition was used through 5-7 "background" words of the same conditioned stimulus - test the words. The experiment was based on the fact that the word, when it was repeated, would be gradually decelerated as a second-signal stimulus. This will affect the weakening of the links of this elephant with other words. The indicator of such a weakening of connections should be an increase in the latent time of associations. However, this weakening of ties does not occur in all people at the same speed, which depends on the strength of the nervous processes. The increase in the association time with the number of presentation of the test word should also characterize the strength of the nervous processes.
The subject is given the following instruction: You will be told the words. For every word uttered by the experimenter, you must respond as quickly as possible in one word, the first that comes to mind. You can not pronounce words that you already used when answering one of the experimenter's previous words. Use only common nouns (verbs, adjectives, proper names, etc. can not be used). So, do not repeat, say only nouns, work as quickly as possible. "
Then, a series of 30 words, not used in the main experiment, is read out to the subject to check how much instruction is learned. If necessary, additional explanations are given.
Previously, the eyes of the examinee are closed with a light bandage, thereby eliminating the possibility of using environmental objects as a support in the search for word-answers. The words of the experimenter and the answers of the test subjects are recorded on tape. The next word the experimenter pronounces immediately after the respondent's answer to the previous word. Latent response periods for the first 8 and the last 8 presentation of test words are fixed.
The indicator of the dynamics of performance during the experiment was the ratio of the averaged sum of 8 latent response periods to the test the word at the end and the beginning of the experience.
A thorough check of the developed methods for reliability and validity was carried out. Reliability was established in two ways:
1) the reliability coefficient was calculated, which reflects the uniformity of the techniques. For this, the splitting on even and odd jobs. The reliability coefficients were in the range from 0.61 to 0.89 (p & lt; 0.001);
2) the stability coefficient of the psychophysical properties studied was calculated. The following results were obtained: from 0.60 (p & lt; 0.005) to 0.92 (p & lt; 0.001).
The above indicators indicate that the reliability of the developed methodologies is satisfactory.
The validation of the methods was also carried out in two directions:
1) the theoretical validity of the methodologies was revealed by comparing the new indicators with the results of the reference indicators having the same typological meaning. Using the correlation technique and factor analysis, it was established that the new indicators form one group (one factor) with reference methods for determining these properties (convergent validity). In addition, the discriminative validity of the new methods was proved, i.e. absence of significant links with methods that have another theoretical justification. Thus, the obtained data allow to draw a conclusion about the theoretical validity of new methods;
2) pragmatic validity was determined by comparing the results of the methods with external criteria. In one case, as an external criterion, a subjective criterion was taken-the evaluation of the subject by himself on a specially developed questionnaire. In the case of an external criterion, there were some individual ways and methods of playing chess, presumably depending on the lability and strength of the nervous system. The method of analyzing the results was of a qualitative, not a quantitative nature. Certain connections were found between the individual characteristics of the behavior of the subjects, as well as between the peculiarity of the playing style of chessplayers (characterizing the more procedural aspect of the activity) and the individual expression of the lability and strength of the nervous system detected by the developed methods. These data allowed to make a conclusion about the pragmatic validity of new methods.
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