Brainstorming (group method of generating ideas)
This method was created in 1939 by A. Osborn and was defined by him as brain storming (brainstorming). Osborne suggested that one of the reasons limiting the creativity of people is the fear of criticism and failure, as well as dependence on authority. That is why Osborn proposed to carry out the solution of problems in two stages. First - the generation of ideas in a free discussion, lack of criticism, fantasy. In the second stage, ideas are tested for "survival".
The method is aimed at finding a solution to the problem through discussion in the group. The problem must be well articulated and specific.
- a statement of the essence of the method and rules of the presenter, a clear formulation of the problem that needs to be solved (10-15 minutes);
- the main phase - the statement of ideas (45-60 min);
- the final phase - summarizing (summation of ideas and analysis).
Terms and Conditions:
- the group consists of 7-12 people;
- approximately equal social status;
- comfortable, relaxed atmosphere;
- knowledge of each other by name;
- the most unbridled fantasy is encouraged;
- observers fixing ideas are located outside the circle;
- the leader does not participate in the discussion on content, but only organizes the process of discussion;
is a circular arrangement.
The leader should remind the participants that at the stage of generating ideas, their criticism and evaluation is prohibited. Ideas are deprived of the author, they can be improved, combined, improved. Also, the rule of three "do not" is introduced: do not discuss, do not excuse, do not sweep aside.
Example: a group of managers are offered in the brainstorming mode to offer as many methods as possible to stimulate and motivate staff.
The 6-3-5 method. The method is a variation of the Brainstorming and is used in groups for the spontaneous birth of ideas. Six participants in this game record their thoughts. The rule of the game is as follows: each writes for 5 minutes three thoughts on the topic, each thought on a separate sheet. After 5 minutes, these three sheets are transferred to the next participant, who without discussion adds his notes on each sheet. After all participants write their notes to each of these 18 pages, they accumulate up to 108 thoughts on the topic. Undoubtedly, ideas and notes will be repeated many times, but among them there will be 50-60 applicable ideas. This process should last 30 minutes. Then follows a joint discussion and evaluation of the results
Method Mindmap (geographical map of thought). Method Majdmapping allows you to visually graphically view the subject matter of the lesson. Tony Butzan, the developer of the method, wanted to record the ideas in line with the processes taking place in the brain, the jumps of thoughts. Such geographical map of thoughts must, as a result, be something orderly, intuitive (easily observable), and a recognizable whole.
The purpose of the method is to search for new thoughts and ideas, information, plan development.
Procedure: In the middle of a sheet of paper (first you can recommend the A3 format across), the trainees first write down the subject matter, the topic around which everything will happen. Then they mentally choose for themselves two or three most important, important aspects on this topic and mark them as the main branches. At the same time, they record keywords as legibly as possible on horizontally extending lines from the center. Subsequent thoughts are suspended in the form of keywords to the existing main branches or, if necessary, attached to the new main branch. It is more advisable to allow branches to grow outward. It is important to promote a free flow of thoughts. Even if at first something is difficult to obtain, the trainees try to concentrate on the topic and, thanks to this, can move forward relatively quickly. No thought should be lost. Part of the time should be allocated to the designation of various aspects (different views on the problem under investigation) in convincing (grounded) interrelations. Otherwise it will restrain creativity and spontaneity.
1. The central or basic idea stands out more clearly.
2. More important ideas are closer to the center, less important ones are in the fields.
3. The links between the key concepts due to their connection by lines become easily recognizable.
4. The new information can be easily placed, without interfering with strikethroughs and without additions, which allows you to see promising lines of development of the ideas found.
Role-playing game is a method whose essence lies in the role-playing & quot ;. Participants play roles that allow them to express their real feelings and thoughts. Awareness leads to action, and its fulfillment leads to an expansion of self-awareness.Role play can be conducted with elements of psychodrama. This is a group work method in which participants perform roles that simulate real situations that have a personal meaning for participants. Purposes of psychodrama - elimination of inadequate emotional reactions, development of skills of social perception, deep self-knowledge.
1. Monologue - saying the main character of his true attitude to what is happening. He says it aloud, as if to the side.
2. Execution of one's own role. When demonstrating difficulty or conflict, the learner plays his real problem. The main character chooses his partners. If there is a real person in the group opposing the protagonist, then this person is taking part in playing the scene.
3. A double or a second "I" tries to become a character who is in the center of attention, taking bodily postures and imitating habits. The double helps and supports the main character. The double provides thoughts and hypotheses that can be adequate, but can also be false. He, as it were, pronounces for the hero those thoughts that come to his mind, but which he does not express verbally. On the stage, a double is placed next to the main character or placed side by side. Says a double from the first person.
The double expands the participants' view of hidden, unintentional motives of behavior.
4. Exchange of roles. Exchange takes place between two real partners, if they play themselves. Exchange can occur in the last scene or the master signal. Exchange allows you to look at yourself through the eyes of another, treat with respect for his experiences, better understand the problem and constructively resolve interpersonal conflicts.
5. Mirror. The reception, consisting in an objective (rather than grotesque) simulation of the behavior of one participant by another or others, and the monitor follows the actions of the simulator as a silent spectator.
To conduct a role-playing game, experience in participation in training and psychological preparation is necessary. The use of video equipment makes the process of analyzing the behavior of participants more detailed and meaningfully profound.Examples: when conducting a training aimed at forming effective relationships between the leaders of the organization, it is proposed to conduct a role-playing game in which participants play a conflict situation.
When conducting sales training, it is possible to use a number of role-playing games "Seller-buyer interaction" in which the main stages of sales are modeled.
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