Drawing on material from the lectures, and using the conceptual framework of ontology, justification and methodology:
Critically discuss the scope to which emotional theories and methodologies are compatible, conflicting or co-existing.
Matthew Belmonte lecture matter (social cognition)
Prof David Crundall lecture issue (risk taking/highway traffic behaviour)
Dr Florentia Hadjiefthyvoulou lecture topic (behavioural/drug craving)
Dr David Wilde lecture issue (advantages to a qualitative approach to psychology, critical health mindset, out of body experience)
Conceptual construction: ontology, explanation and technique.
Psychologists may be enthusiastic about similar questions, why is psychology unique? Why is this a mental health question? What exactly are we studying ourselves - sociable psychology, different components of who we have been (bystander effect). Developmental mindset, pursuing certain methodologies (a blank status/innate/genetics/nature vs nurture) Personality/individuality - build generalisations in similar contexts - why is us the same? (nomothetic strategy) The normative working state of behavior (in a position to recognise abnormal behavior) How do psychologists go about learning what they study? Thinking about the human being - who you are? Social/society/environment the partnership between them all, how do they fit together between the mind, behaviour and body (the mental state of mind, consciousness and physical aspect/body/brain as control centre?)
Ontology - what's the dynamics/essential essence of the subject matter (what's finished. 'in itself'?) The facts that needs describing?
Explanation (theory) - just how do we clarify the emotional phenomena? Language must coincide with ontology. How well does indeed the reason match ontology? What counts as appropriate proof to support the reason?
Methodology - what methods do we make use of to check (support/refute) psychological justification (theory)? Evidence to aid explanation to verify ontology. Is this the most practical method of gathering the evidence to support the reason?
What is mindset? Is mindset. . . the scientific study of the human mind (thoughts and mental consciousness)? The study of the brain (helps to perceive certainty (function) substance - neurological physical thing - consisting of neurons)? The study of behaviour (motive and action easily fit into)? A QUESTION OF ONTOLOGY - WHAT IS THE MIND? WHAT IS THE BRAIN? WHAT'S BEHAVIOUR? Is te brain the same as the mind, or are they different? Is behaviour exactly like movement? What about objective and action: how do they relate with behaviour?
A QUESTION OF Description - HOW DO WE EXPLAIN the relationship between brain, brain and behavior. How is your brain related to the mind? How is the brain/brain related to behaviour? Could it be that. . . brain, brain, head and brain CAUSE behaviour?
A QUESTION OF Strategy - HOW DO WE STUDY the mind, the mind and behaviour. Take into account of historical context?
If psychology is the (scientific) analysis of head/brain/behaviour then where, in all of the, is the individual? ONTOLOGY: Is the person their mind, their brain, their behavior or all of these? Justification: How are these related to the other person in the development of a person? Technique: How do we review a person?
Placing mental health research in HISTORICAL CONTEXT: to comprehend the current express of psychology, why psychology is really as it is. The roots of a few of the issues and questions that relate to psychology and psychology as a research. To better realize why these issues and questions have arisen and also learn from those who preceded us.
FH: Conceptual platform with obsession: Ontology - what can cause addiction? Description - theories of addiction. Methodology - how do we research these theories?
What causes habit - many ideas make an effort to answer this complicated question. Sociocultural point of view (people form addictions under demanding living conditions), psychodynamic point of view, cognitive-behavioural point of view (operant conditioning is a key role in obsession), biological perspective (addiction is an illness that the average person has no control over) Is addiction nature (a disease = natural) or nurture (interpersonal learning happening)
Disease model of addiction: the individual has no control over drinking behaviors - treatments such as Alcoholic beverages Anonymous is dependant on theory as dependency is an illness because of hereditary make-up. 'The disease idea of alcoholism' (Jellinek 1960) The inability to control drinking alcohol. 'Craving is an illness that originates from the natural, neurological and genetic makeup of the specific'.
Disease model of craving: where does the evidence result from? Hereditary predisposition factors: Animal breeding studies, whereby animals showed a choice to alcohol, their offspring also (hereditary make-up) (Carroll and Meisch 2011, Weiss, 2011) People twins studies (inherit hereditary predisposition) (Legrand et al. , 2005, Tsuang et al. , 2001) Kaij 1960. Adoption studies (offers support to disease style of obsession) (Walters 2002, Goldstein 1994) Hereditary linkage strategies and molecular biology techniques. Irregular dopamine-2 (D2) receptor gene in individuals with compound use disorder (Cosgrove 2010; Blum et al. , 1996) <20% irregular D2 receptor gene in healthy individuals. There could be other factors/explanations contributing to addiction - this model has defects (family connections could be taken into consideration)
Disease style of habit: where does this evidence result from? Psychological factors: the reward system or 'pleasure pathway': 'a brain circuit that is involved in mediating the consequences of reinforcement and is fundamental in initiating and retaining behaviours important for survival'. Information from canine studies - Behaviours such as eating food and alcoholic beverages that we enjoy doing kick start the mind compensation system - Particular neuron circuits light up during pleasure - neuron transmitter is dopamine (feel good hormones that give a pleasurable sense - from MRI studies) that produces euphoria and reinforces the behavior to be repeated (how addictive behaviours are managed and strengthened).
Is the condition model the sole explanation for our question? The main factors behind addictive behavior are mental in nature rather than biological. Robins (1979) need for social setting on drug taking.
Social learning theory 'obsession is a discovered behaviour and is also the result of observation and modelling (cultural and family connections)'
The individual: personality characteristics (Sher et al 1991; Terracciano et al, 2007; Wilson et al. , 2010) low self-esteem, sensation-seeking, impulsivity, vulnerability, openness to see, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Is there an addictive personality? Other high risk factors: permissive family behaviour to addictive behaviours. Addictive behaviours by parents or family members. Low dedication to school. Early peer rejection (alienation), attitudes favourable to addictive behaviours. Early onset of the behavior - underlying depression, anxiety.
The environment: the cultural context and traditions underpinning the addictive behaviour. Extreme economical deprivation (mainly for medication cravings) 'heroin is the perfect medication for the unemployed'. Chemical cost and availableness - the most significant predictor of use and peer associations. Family connections model (Baer et al 1987) higher risk through: deficits in parenting, family tension, rejection, mental distancing and parental alienation.
The behavior: once discovered, addiction is looked after through cognitive factors, expectancies and cues. Operant Conditioning (Skinner), Classical Conditioning (Pavlov)
Examples of factors reinforcing an addictive behaviour: positive reinforcement associated with: the psychopharamacology of the medicine (relevant to substance addiction), crucial need for the role of the dopaminergic system (incentive), the communal facet of the behaviour - peer recognition, group identity, ethnical norms etc. Negative encouragement associated with: avoidance of withdrawal symptoms, some drugs/behaviours minimize psychological problems/trauma, comfort of boredom, coping with poor living conditions etc.
Protective factors: a supportive family environment, a nurturing marriage with at least one adult, positive nature, a cultural support system that stimulates effort.
So what causes addiction? Is habit an illness? Is addiction a communal learning sensation? Can both natural and psychological ideas explain dependency?
How well does the reason (theories of habit) match the ontology? Do ways of gathering research support the explanation? Are methods suitable, conflicting or co-existing? Exactly what does this say about the type of mindset?
Stress, Family Environment, and Multiple Substance Use Among Seventh Graders
P. E. Baer, R. J. McLaughlin, M. A. Burnside, A. D. Pokorny, and L. B. Garmezy Baylor College of Medicine. Psychology of Addictive Behaviours. 1987, Vol. 1, No 2. 92-103
Seventh graders reported using more alcohol, nicotine, or cannabis, singly or in mixture, if indeed they also reported having more nerve-racking events occurring in their lives. This is the case whether the stressful occurrences were of major proportion; Major life stressors had consistently a far more reliable marriage to element use than the slight irritants when the number of events that acquired occurred was considered. From a qualitative point of view, the troublesomeness of daily irritants retains an independent romance with usage apart from the regularity of stressors and does indeed so in addition to the correlation of consumption and stress and anxiety. Family support and stressors independently relate with substance usage.
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