Can We Ever Leave DAYS GONE BY Behind?

To answer the question, we have to go through the origin of real human behavior, ideas, and thoughts? - are they innate or learned? (from past activities) - mother nature or nurture? Aspect is inherited capabilities and genes present at birth, and Nurture is behaviours obtained after labor and birth from the effect of experience. Many modern theories claim that experience, environment and genetics all are likely involved in influencing our present behaviour, nevertheless they don't all acknowledge the degree of the influences.

It is definitely understood that one physical characteristics are biologically dependant on genetic inheritance e. g. coloring of hair, eye and pores and skin, physical characteristics such as the shape of our own nose etc, and even certain diseases are a function of the genes we inherit e. g. Parkinson's. These facts drive research to discover if psychological characteristics such as behavioral tendencies, personality attributes and mental abilities are also wired in before we are created. Mcleod (2007) writes that on the extreme aspect area of the argument there will be the biological theorists who targets hereditary, hormonal and neurochemical explanations for our behaviour and characteristics that are not observed at beginning, but develop later in life as a product of maturation. And at the other end of, pro the nurture argument, will be the behaviorists who believe all behaviour is learned from the surroundings through conditioning; it is how we are raised that governs the psychologically significant aspects of development and behaviour we exhibit inside our present.

Examples of the type position include Bowlby's theory of connection, which views the connection between mother and child as being an innate process that ensures success, and also Freud's theory of aggression as an innate drive (called Thanatos). These contrasts with the behaviorists, eg Skinner, who thought that language, is learnt from other folks via behavior shaping techniques and Bandura's sociable learning theory that areas aggression is learnt from the surroundings through observation and imitation eg BoBo doll experiment (NCHP 2011).

Other psychological theories suggest that there's a middle ground to these extremes that clarify current behaviours; a middle earth to add some biology plus some attained through experience. How much of each is open to debate especially in the light of developments in genetics. McLeod (2007) quotes the Individual Genome Project as an example stimulating interest in tracing types of habit to particular strands of DNA situated on specific chromosomes, with researchers on the verge of obtaining (or have already observed) the gene for criminality, alcoholism or the "gay gene".

Freud maintained a well-balanced view between nature and nurture, all-be-it a moving one. His concept of the vibrant unconscious was an important contribution to the mindset of human behaviour for the reason that the human brain played out an important role in determining how a person behaved - but the existence of exterior events could not be disregarded. Many strategies in the field of psychology claim that behaviour is directed by an individual's goal however the idea of the goal directed unconscious can be an original Freudian concept. Root this theory is the belief that any individual's behaviour is the immediate consequence of the influences of most prior experience and this no individual aspect of human behavior is unintentional. Freud assumed that early childhood experiences formed sturdy foundations which the growing child would structure the others of these life i. e. the adult personality was formed in childhood according to their activities. If the knowledge was happy and well balanced then your child would turn into a well balanced and tweaked adult. Psychotherapy utilises the psychodynamic way which places importance on the youth years and exactly how conflicts were solved.

Jung disagreed with aspects of Freud's theories, especially his psychosexual phases; he developed his own ideas which became known as Analytical Psychology. He did agree with Freud that man is influenced by sex drive, but believed it was more a 'life pressure' that was accountable for development. His idea of the unconscious was dissimilar to Freud's Ego, Identification and super-ego composition, and suggested that the psyche was composed of three components: the ego, the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious: the ego represents the conscious mind as the personal unconscious consists of recollections, including those that contain been suppressed. The collective unconscious is a unique component for the reason that Jung believed that part of the psyche offered as a kind of psychological inheritance. It contains all the knowledge and encounters we show as a species and is also where his archetypes can be found as innate models. The five archetypes Jung was most interested were the anima, animus, persona, shadow and self applied. (Snowden 2010)

Jung argued that whereas the first part of a person's life includes a coming to conditions with the exterior environment and its obstacles - through work, friendships and associations - the emphasis on the next part, from middle era onwards, is to come quickly to conditions with one's own personality. Faced with declining opportunities, energies and perhaps health, the average person must find new purpose and so this means in life through components. Snowden (2010) writes that although in the end beneficial, this can be difficult, because it involves accepting parts of one's personality which may would rather leave undiscovered e. g. The shadow.

Jung believed a whole contest could relate back to its roots e. g. aborigines, Eskimos, Negros. He based mostly this theory on research which revealed uniformity of ideas and customs in a specific group. He responded his critics by suggesting that these themes or templates confirmed as fantasies in psychotic people who, he said, would never have known that materials, and also in his later goal evaluation work. Criticism came up, not simply from supporters of Freud, but scientists who required empirical information. The criticism was centred after four main areas

Jung's strategy.

The theory of archetypes

Jung's idea of religious experience

The role of religious beliefs within individuation.

Roheim (1945) felt that since all humans show broadly the same activities, it is rarely shocking that they develop myths along similar lines. Research recorded by Geza Roheim (1929-1953) proved that although he was primarily a theoretician, his theory was always predicated on rigorous observation and research e. g. Australian Aborigines. He was main anthropologists to successfully apply Freudian theories to the evaluation of cultures. Robinson (1969) writes

"Roheim's "ontogenetic theory of culture" is considered a major contribution to this field". (p129)

Roheim believed that cultural distinctions were largely the consequence of an individual's child years traumas and that the child years experiences of the individual was ultimately mirrored in adult personality and in the collective companies of confirmed culture. (Robinson 1969).

The Object Relations Theory places less emphasis on Freud's biological drives of aggression and sexuality as motivational makes and more focus on early relationships, primarily mother and child. Subject Relations theorists believe that we are romantic relationship seeking alternatively than pleasure seeking. Melanie Klein was a main contributor to the Object Relationships Theory. Klein, Fairbairn and Winnicott, have changed, in varying diplomas, toward a model where an 'subject' is the target of relational needs in individuals development. The infant's first object is a part object, e. g. the mother's breast, a supplier of needs. The ego is strengthened by the finding of 'good' things.

Segal (1992) writes about Klein, how she developed the style of 'good items' and 'bad items' as an alternative type of discord compared to that between Freud's Id and super-ego. Discovering the breast relationship as significant; as the child feeds, it feels gratified and satiated when the breasts produces sufficient milk, and so feels loved and appreciated. But if prematurely withdrawn or the breast will not provide sufficient food, the kid is frustrated and the breasts is hated and obtains hostile thoughts (Good breast: bad breasts). Klein implies this conflict is vital for normal personality/ego development. I. e. conflict and the ability to triumph over it. Splitting occurs to allow the infant to deal with the issue i. e. bad and the good in the same subject. It has similarities to Jung's coincidence of opposite's concept. Items can be people (mom, daddy, others), parts of individuals or objects/symbols with which we form accessories eg infants can form relationships with gadgets and domestic pets (transitional items) even blankets and components of clothes. These objects and the developing child's romantic relationship with them are how humans form and maintain a feeling of self applied, as well as interactions with others; if disrupted then there commences the introduction of an afflicted child or adult down the road.

Bowlby and Winnicott put emphasis for individual behavior on environmental factors, including connections with others. Winnicott's theory rests easily alongside Bowlby's (1988) theory of connection which suggested that connection bonding between individuals advances and then have certain natural drives achieved. A securely fastened child can explore and move from mother to activate with a wider world, not only physically but internally i. e. self included, having internalised the love of their caretaker and so comfortable with self applied ie attachment actually fosters self-reliance rather than dependence. Misuse by a primary caregiver damage the most fundamental marriage as a child-that you will properly, reliably get your physical and emotional needs attained by the person who is responsible for your care. Without this foundation, it is very difficult to learn to trust people or know who is trustworthy. This may lead to difficulty retaining relationships credited to fear of being handled or abused. Additionally, it may lead to unhealthy romantic relationships because the adult doesn't know very well what a good romance is.

Bowlby (1988) was also critical of Klein's focus on the inner process at the trouble of the associations with real objects. He also argued that Winnicott's theory of 'a good enough mother' sets expectation on the mom that she must shoulder the responsibility for the results of her child.

Pines (2005) however sensed

"Winnicott do a great favour to concerned mothers by guaranteeing them that to be able to raise an psychologically healthy baby you do not need to be a perfect mother, only a "sufficient mom" " (P. 118).

Carl Rogers (1951) proposed that the sense of personal which emerges from years as a child, be it healthy or psychologically difficult, is dependent on these connections

"As a result of interaction with the environment, and particularly therefore of evaluational conversation with others, the composition of home is shaped. . . " (p498)


"Psychological maladjustment is present when the organism denies to awareness significant sensory and visceral experience. . . " (p510)

Jacobs (2007) increases concern these theories may lead us to place people 'in bins', labelling them normal or irregular depending on whether or not they have effectively negotiated a particular stage or phase in their life. Klein attempted to handle this by building on Freud's psychosexual phases theory using positions not periods. Freud recommended we undertake the stages, oral to anal then genital, whereas Klein assumed we are never free of issues; people and children move back and forth between positions all the time (e. g. paranoid-schizoid position and depressive position). Klein 'depressive position' has been used to spell it out a child's growing belief that early good and bad experiences result from the same source.

Referring to Lewins Field Theory Neumann (2011) creates

"Lewin highlighted the importance of characterising the atmosphere (e. g. psychological tone or weather) and the amount of independence existing in the situation. This overall perspective counteracts the take to do it again the same unsuccessful tries at change and development. Concluding that such a draw to repetition comes from forces within the field. "

Erikson accepted most of Freud's work, but suggested that there have been not five periods of development as Freud psychosexual stages proposed, but eight. Erikson believed that every human being goes through a predetermined unfolding of personality in his 'Eight Age range of Man' theory to reach full development. Jacobs (2007) summarises

'Erikson's theory frames the problems of each age group as being a lot more than erotic pleasure or annoyance, and much more than the satisfaction of bodily dreams'. (p11)

Alongside Erikson's stages are responsibilities that he felt were key issues in each age group e. g. Trust v Mistrust through the oral era progressing to the introduction of an identification crisis through the teenage years where people struggle between emotions of identity versus role confusion. James Marcia (1966) broadened after Erikson's theory

proposing the Id Position Theory, as not phases, but rather steps that adolescents go through, in varying series, sometimes in two expresses at anybody time. Marcia noticed that stages designed folks have to progress in one to the next in a set collection, which his theory turned down. He felt the balance between identity and confusion lies in making a committed action to an personality with each status dependant on two factors

1. Is the adolescent focused on an identity, and

2. Is the individual searching for his or her true identification?

The Identity Claims are

Identity achievement occurs when an individual has gone via an exploration of different identities and made a commitment to 1.

Moratorium is the status of someone who is actively involved with exploring different identities, but hasn't made a committed action.

Foreclosure status is whenever a person has made a committed action without attempting identification exploration.

Identity diffusion occurs when there exists neither an id crisis or commitment.

Those who have made a strong commitment to a identity tend to be more happy and healthier than those people who have not. People that have a position of individuality diffusion tend to feel out of place in the earth and don't pursue a feeling of personal information.

All these ideas relate to a development where different parts or objects need to connect together - integration. This looks as us having the ability to associate socially, to work, ourselves and the environment we live in. With Erikson this is a continuous process of finding id but there is no doubt that activities of childhood are vital inside our ability to adapt to life. Whatever we call it, we desire a secure sense of self, ego, personality, to meet and use the changes that growing up and aged brings. Freud would say this is living by the main of truth i. e. ego is balancing the requirements of the Identification, very ego and environment. Erikson elaborated upon this with different strengths at each time stage, concluding at the eighth get older of ego integrity knowing ones id. Jung advised individuation.

Jacobs (2004) Triangle of Understanding suggests client do not promote themselves to the counselling romance in isolation. Psychodynamic Theory uses the Triangle of Information in which past and present, relationships outside and inside remedy and in the exterior and inside world can be linked, and can be very insightful to the customers picture and their presenting issue


In here.


Past. Present

Back Then. Out There

'Parent'-Child Client-Others

Not only is our present being affected by our history, our memory of the past is influenced by our present; perceptions and interpretations change depending on current circumstances, our mood even, therefore the presenting position may well bias just how we inform our storyline - perception and fact are both important aspects. Rogers (1951) suggested

"We respond to the field as it is experienced and identified. This perpetual field for the average person is 'reality'". P484

Family record, parents and the generations above them, might play itself out in a family. Family therapy has recognised the value of this affect on a family group and individual; it is not merely the individual's background that is pertinent here.

Fritz Perls first created what would end up being the Cycle of Consciousness in Gestalt Remedy. He assumed that there is an instinctive pattern which mirrored the "cycle of the interdependency of organism and environment. " (Perls 1969).










Fig. 1

Clarkson (2004) describes how this routine (fig. 1) demonstrates how earlier negative happenings/instruction is harmful to psychological health insurance and that to process any feeling completely and healthily, we have to pass round the circuit of experience to maintain us and provide for actualisation. She says

"Interruption of the Consciousness Cycle limits 'aliveness'; the idea in the pattern the interruption occurs is dictated by the sort of toxic introject. "

Two categories hinder this pattern

Absence in the environment of the individual or thing essential to meet need.

Stopping oneself in the circuit

This requires us to understand our wants. To not take note is to stay in withdrawal even after want has arisen - or to keep it out of consciousness. I. e. your choice to self-interrupt this natural process is to leave a need or desire unmet, which accumulates as 'unfinished' business. It really is in effect avoidance.

It is during early development, particularly the first five years, a child is given emails of how to express themselves, verbal and non verbal. Smith (2000) suggests that these are introjected, swallowed whole, of course, if toxic e. g. 'big guys don't weep. . . . mummy won't love you': ". . . can produce a lifelong issue against 'aliveness'. The greater number or severity of toxic introjects the less alive the person and inner conflict reigns.

To communicate our story or experience we need to understand terms and imagery; it is at the centre of several therapeutic models, especially so in the psychodynamic way. Inside our present we use words, reports and even icons to illustrate our own story and this can hold a whole lot information in regards to what we are trying to convey eg how we see the world, a specific problem, a romantic relationship or even what our personality, thoughts or feelings are; our previous forms this. Each person has their own language and imagery when speaking, as each has their own personal life experience e. g. 'I drift along' as opposed to 'I was dragged up'. The way we convey our story may give a quite different interpretation to the listener. Freud proposed language was associated with our experiences through the psychosexual stages whilst more modern psychologists believe that meanings should be allowed to have a far more individual interpretation, with the likelihood of common elements, eg different civilizations, solo parenting and gay relationships will create a different set of norms and principles.

The need for difficult past experience, reality and perception, is applicable the maximum amount of to the earliest weeks in a person's life including antenatal affects. Within their article Davis, E. , Sandman, C ( 2006) write

"Stress has significant implications throughout the life span. However, when it occurs early in life, the implications may be particularly profound and long lasting".

Ainsworth et al's (1979) 'Peculiar Situation Test', concluded that there were three major styles of attachment: Secure, Ambivalent-insecure, and Avoidant-insecure. Numerous studies have backed Ainsworth's conclusions that these early attachment styles can help predict behaviours later in life and also have an important impact on later human relationships. Hazen and Shaver (1990) for example found that securely attached parents tend to think that loving love is long lasting, ambivalently attached adults fall season in love often, while people that have avoidant attachment styles describe love as uncommon and short-term and tend to have difficulty with intimacy and close associations. Researching different connection styles and gender Feeney et al (1993) recommended that attachment style and gender role expectations jointly influence relationship development.

The overall view from these ideas is that unresolved issues from the past often have a robust effect on residing in today's. Linking past to present can be enlightening, although identifying it with a client could be very challenging and is the reason why the therapeutic romantic relationship is so important. We enter into the globe with a hereditary encoding that places the level for who we will become. However, additionally it is our interactions with significant others, from beginning onward, that designs how our genetic predispositions will be portrayed. Early in life, we've little sense of ourselves, or our personality. It really is through our relationships with significant people all around us that slowly create a self-structure, which we eventually call a personality.

Taking all of this evidence into account, my view is not any, we can't ever leave our previous behind, it remains with us; they have formed who we have been. It explains a lot about how were, bad and the good. By understanding the foundation of our current behaviours, biologically and acquired through experience, we can gain a deeper understanding, or a different perspective, which can facilitate the process of further integration with self. It may simply make clear why we do what we do. Our maladaptive behaviours, the defence strategies we use to reduce past injury, once useful and effective, soon become damaging inside our lives and those we form connections with. By uncovering the annals surrounding child years and adolescence we may often have the ability to find a point(s) at which trauma occurred and the beginning of our defensive behaviour.

I agree with Jacob (2007) who says

"Past, present and future are linked inseparably in the manner we think and act" (p1).

It is quite clear that knowing of our past, and the perceptions formed from it, informs today's, the way we might think, be or act. It is also clear that not only can remembrances of days gone by influence the present, but stories of days gone by may be influenced by present experience. Although psychotherapy is approximately the present, it works on the premise that understanding days gone by and its influence on today's, the road towards change becomes clearer.

We can never directly view our clients past, but Jacobson, P. And Steele R (1979) published that Freud delved into his clients past attempting to reconstruct it from their present behaviours because he presumed that our recent will determine our present situation. Of the therapeutic environment they quoted Freud

"That which you are searching for is a picture of the clients forgotten years. . . ".

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