Case Study on the nature vs nurture debate

Is a child's development inspired by genetics or could the majority of influence be within the child's environment? The type vs. nurture question has been at the forefront of psychology for many years. The goal of this essay is to try and answer this question using the case study of Genie. The essay shall also check out a few of the roles that a multidisciplinary team would play in a case like Genies and when there is any desire of rehabilitation. The big question that needed to be answered is if it was too late for her to develop into a standard adult.

Lenneberg (1957) (cited in Hayes, 1998) asserted that the critical period, in development for children is before puberty in case a child hadn't learned how to speak, they might never cross the 2-3 term telegraphic level. Lenneberg noticed that after the critical stage has passed words would not be performed normally after puberty. Chomsky (1957) (cited in Cardwell et al, 2010) stated that all individuals language has the same basic guidelines when it comes to grammar and structure.

For most individuals development of terms comes obviously as they grow. Regarding to Chomsky (cited in Hayes, 1998), language is foremost something of the mind and children offer an innate acquisition device. The Chomskyan view helps the nature theory as he presumed that infants are created with an idea of how language works which inborn knowledge must be activated through contact with language at the appropriate time.

It is often known that behavior is influenced by implications. Skinners' (1935) (cited in Cardwell 1996) theory of operant conditioning states that the process does not require repeated efforts but an instantaneous reaction to a familiar stimulus.

In the truth of Genie, she was raised in isolation where she put in the majority of her child years locked up in a bedroom. It really is argued that her lack of language was due to the physical abuse from her daddy when she made a noise. It is noted that her daddy never spoke to her even when defeating her. He was thought to have barked and growled at her like a dog. In the next a few months after her finding Genie's mother reported that soon after Genies' isolation that she listened to her expressing words (Pines, 1997). This might show that Genie was on course to learn dialect. This would demonstrate the theory of Chomsky, but would be against Lenneberg as he previously theorised that the mind of a child before the time of two has not matured enough for the acquisition of dialect (Pines, 1997). However, throughout her life Genie failed to learn the grammar and syntax that corresponding to Chomsky separates the terminology of human beings from other varieties. This could establish that she experienced approved the critical period for terminology acquisition. With her history of operant fitness, it can be argued that the behaviourist strategy would be the best way to rehabilitate Genie. This would imply that the team interacting with Genie would have to change the consequences associated with an action. If Genie have been in the attention of today's day multidisciplinary team she'd have been described several specialists.

It can be assumed that Genie had expressive and receptive words disorders due to her isolation. It is possible that part of her language concern may have related to the fact that her dental muscles hadn't developed enough on her behalf to produce the right may seem. During her years of isolation Genie was given on baby food and tender foods. It's been documented that she would leave food in her oral cavity until the enzymes in her saliva started to digest the food (Pines, 1997). Genie would obtain one to one attention from a speech and terms therapist to overcome her conversation and feeding difficulties. Language treatment activities would succeed with Genie as the therapist would interact and built a therapeutic relationship by appropriately playing and conversing with her. The therapist would display how sounds are created and how to move the tongue to be sure sounds and use a number of exercises to strengthen the muscles of the mouth area.

Genie could be sent to an occupational therapist (OT) to be able to examine her needs and develop a care intervention plan. OTs' think that behaviour is discovered and this poor or non helpful behaviours can be unlearned and replaced by lasting behaviors (Turner et al). The OT could design an application for Genie that incorporates sociable skill training, stress management and behavior modification. The usage of the Canadian Occupational Performance Solution (COPM) (appendix 1) would measure Genies progress and ensure a humanistic strategy is taken regarding her good care and treatment. The COPM put Genie at the centre of her treatment plan and looks for to help her find meaning to her life in her each day activities.

As the calendar months progressed Genie showed numerous breakthroughs. One particular break through was found when Dr James Kent remaining Genie and she showed a big change of facial manifestation. Genie had cured everyone the same and confirmed no emotional a reaction to anyone or anything, however Dr Kent seen her expression altered from pleased to sad. She had always shown the capability to explore her environment but had never shown feelings. This showed that she could develop emotional attachments therefore she was able to learn. Bowlby (1969, 1973) (cited in Cardwell et al, 1996) stated that the value of emotional attachment to a caregiver ensures that the kid will be given, protected from damage and educated. You can find evidence to say that an infants' need to form attachments is innate. This would also claim that the parent also has an innate inclination to form accessories using their children. From an evolutionary point of view it is in the mothers' best interest to see her children develop up and produce children of their own. Through research, Klaus and Kennel (1976) (cited in mindset4a. com) found that mothers which were allowed constant connection with their newborn babies developed more powerful bonds that moms that only experienced contact for feeding. This has business lead to the skin to skin area hypothesis that is implemented in hospitals. Fathers are also prompted to be there at the birth to develop an early attachment. In the case of Genie little is well known about her delivery, however since she was created pre 1976 the assumption is that the daddy was not present at the beginning and that mom and child were separated soon after the birthing process. This may have played a component in the inability to create an emotional connection to Genie that lead to her years of maltreatment. David Rigler acquired advised that he thought that it was very important to Genie to develop strong emotional accessories within her development. David Rigler and his wife Marilyn ended up fostering Genie. The Riglers took on the tasks of Genies' remedy, teacher, principle investigator, and foster parents. While coping with the Riglers Genie proved advancements in her remedy sessions. This may be scheduled to her being in a nurturing environment were she was praised to make improvement. This theory on learning is support by behaviourists' Skinner (1957) (cited in Hayes, 1998) and Thorndyke (1911) (cited in Cardwell, 1996), who observed learning as taking place mainly through the law of (positive) result. This was proven in the Skinner box test (Cardwell, 1996), which rewarded rats with food for an optimistic action. First the trap canine would demonstrate get away from seeking behavior; however one of the actions would provide the subject with a food reinforcer. This might result in the topic changing its behaviour to seek the incentive. So in Genies' case, each time she received compliment for a confident action, she was more likely to repeat the action.

While Genie is at isolation, her physiological needs were not completely met. Regarding to Maslow's (1954) (cited in Turner, 2007) hierarchy of needs (appendix 2), there are two pieces of individual needs. One place concerns basic survival needs such as physiological and safeness needs. The other set in place concerns self-actualisation, the realisation of a person's full potential as shown in creative imagination and the utilization of intellect. Since her physiological needs weren't satisfied Maslows' theory claims that she would not have been able to ascend the hierarchy and start to meet her creative and intellectual drives.

Dr. J. Shirley the psychiatrist, wanted to determine her mental functions. The sleeping test that was completed showed Genie got patterns that suggested mental retardation. It isn't known if Genie was created this way or if the severe neglect contributed in her mental health. It really is noted that at 14 weeks, Genie was diagnosed as being mentally retarded. It can be argued that Genie was not born emotionally retarded but was handicapped credited to lack of normal youth development during her early on years. Further test outcomes confirmed that Genie did not display any left brain activity since it appeared never to are suffering from during her pre-pubescent years. The left part of the brain is the region that is accountable for terms acquisition and development. Subconscious tests confirmed that her mental era increased by one year, yearly since her discovery. This isn't quality of mental retardation. It could be argued that because the critical level was missed, the biological potential for the brain to fully develop was therefore impaired.

There are several flaws in the type versus nurture controversy. The flaw in the utilization of Skinners rats is the fact breeding within a family, as rats do, is known to cause genetic problems that can impair brains. Addititionally there is the question associated with Genies' mental retardation. If she was created retarded then her potential to build up at the relevant critical durations was impaired from labor and birth naturally. In Genie's case it could be argued that nurture seemed to play a larger role than aspect. She suffered from a host were she had not been nurtured positively. Most current researchers agree that human traits are determined by both nature and nurture. They may disagree which part gets the greater effect.

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