Category individual in Psychological Science
The contradictory unity of the object and subject attributes of the individual person is the basis of his bodily and psychic potential. The peculiarities of the bodily structure of the individual human organism serve as prerequisites for the emergence of its general (fundamental) abilities to new forms of interaction with the external world.
Man as an individual, more often than not, is considered in the biological aspect, that is, the concept of "individual" It is used to designate a person as a biological being. In anthropological concepts, a person is most often defined as an individual.
The individual ego is the representative of the human race as an animal species.
This concept is used when we consider innate the object properties of a person, the combination of which is represented by the uniqueness of its anatomical features (vertical position of the body, voice apparatus, hand, brain morphology, age, ethnicity), as well as diadic, family and herd forms of coexistence. To the concept of individual they resort to studies of the dependence of mental activity on the body organization of man. This dependence reveals the natural origin of the basic components of psychic organization, which are considered as general abilities of the body-mental potential of man. This consideration led to the emergence of psychology as an independent science. Darwin's theory, the basic biogenetic law and the law of recapitulation made it possible to substantiate the continuity of the development of the nervous system from the nerve fiber to the complex human brain, as well as to the forms of behavior corresponding to these levels of development of the nervous system, from taxis to reflexion. In addition, the interrelation and mutual influence of the functioning of the body and the psyche are reflected in psychology as a psychophysiological problem.
Man as an individual can be considered by belonging to a certain class, a group of animals or to their family, gender and species - these are the categories of animal classification.
Man belongs to the class of mammals. This reveals to us a certain interdependence of the object and subject properties of a person.
Among the features of a human mammal, psychologists are interested primarily in the object relations of the newborn with their parents.
The dependence of the child on the parents, like all mammals, forces them to interact with each other. The process of such interaction takes place in the form of communication, which involves the involuntary development of anthropological means of communication , whose functions are performed by the sense organs and the system of expressive movements. Communication between parents and children is carried out according to the laws of psychological influence. The child's assimilation of the effects on them of adults occurs by means of imitation. The ability to imitate is important for a person acquiring a subjective property. Socio-biological dependence of children on adults in the life of a mammalian man has created new unique prerequisites for another leap in the mental development of the human individual, socializing with the society. The mechanisms and psychological consequences of child-parent interaction are described in the most detail in the psychoanalytic paradigm both in the context of individual psychological characteristics (3. Freud, L. Adler, K. Horney) and in the context of assimilation in this interaction of cultural and social experience (E. Erickson).
Man as an individual belongs to the order of primates. In their corporal organization there are the front limbs, free from the supporting function, by means of which the primates are able not only to capture an object, but also to manipulate it.
These features are realized in a person in the form of manual practical-practical activity, which turns the hand into an organ knowledge and work. Thus, a new subjective quality - touch - a complex kind of concrete-sensory reflection of objective properties and relations of the external world. In touch, the motor and skin sensitivity of a person connects, which led to a qualitative change in the entire system of human perception of the objects of its interaction. He began to more accurately distinguish the shape of objects, their physical properties, was able to modify natural objects of nature at their discretion. So the preconditions of transformational activity and creativity arose.
The appearance of a hand in the body organization of a person involved the morphological potential of his brain and led to a colossal jump in the mental development of the human primate.
Man belongs to the family of anthropoids , for which the group way of life is characteristic and at the same time the individual is isolated in conditions of herd-family relations. This circumstance, on the one hand, forms collectivistic forms of conduct , on the other hand, lays the foundations for individual development of the individual. As a result, a person in a series of subject acquisitions reveals communicative and organizational-managerial abilities whose purpose is to regulate interaction with such individuals. On their basis, special relationships develop among members of the community, and the person acquires new qualities of the subject of socio-psychological relations for himself. In this capacity, he acquires the properties of the social individual.
The further evolution of anthropoids is associated with the appearance of "spontaneousness". The right anthropoids are referred to the genus hominids, which due to the vertical setting of the body change the position of the person in space, which gives impetus to the development of the orienting-research activity and the corresponding abilities: to space-time representations, which are fundamental for all types of professional human activity.
As a result of evolution, a Homo sapiens species emerged from the genus of hominids, which in its bodily organization acquired a voice apparatus and a morphologically more mature brain. This provided human speech development , thereby increasing its educational potential for mastering the experience of fellow tribesmen. Speech (verbal) forms of communication have become the most effective means of regulating people's joint activities.The appearance of speech played a decisive role in the emergence of the spiritual being of man, in ensuring the continuity of knowledge from one generation to another, in creating prerequisites for the realization of subject immortality. human evolution, a kind of autonomy of man's mental development from his biological properties appeared.
Thus, we see that every subject acquisition of man is due to the biological evolution of his corporal organization. However, with the appearance of speech a person is freed from the rigid dependence on the bodily laws of life as a subject of spiritual activity. Moreover, spiritual transformations begin to influence the biological processes of the bodily existence of man.
The species Homo sapiens due to sexual dimorphism is differentiated by men and women. The bodily organization of both is biologically designed to perform specific functions in the reproduction of the species. Functional specialization of individuals by sex in the processes of joint life activity has generated a kind of psychology of men and women.
In vivo age-related changes in the physicalness of a person also influence the formation of specific features of his psychology. In studying this interdependence, the age principle of explaining individual differences in the psychology of man has been established, and a special branch of psychological science has developed-age psychology, which today pays more attention to the childhood and adolescence of human development.
Community way of life led to the formation of ethnic groups as natural social organisms, which in the process of social interaction formed national associations with each other. Ethnic qualities of the individual are contained in the anthropological and psychological characteristics of people belonging to different peoples. Differences in the appearance and psychological storehouse of people of different ethnic groups are the obvious evidence.
The physical attributes of the external appearance are inherited genetically, and the psychological fold of the personality is formed under the influence of the way of life of the ethnic community in which a person appeared after birth. At the same time, the rupture of the genetic and socio-psychological belonging of a person on ethnic grounds can become a source of conflict behavior in society and psychological stress in self-identification.
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