Cheating Behavior Among Undergraduate Students Mindset Essay

The journal articles that are reviewed here have common keywords which are students and cheating, which may be classified as educational dishonesty. The research in the first journal is approximately cheating tendencies among undergraduate students. The critical review in the first journal quite simply criticized the Methodological issue and theoretical issue which involve the sample of the study, procedures and how the research is beneficial to others. The study in the second journal however is about Academics dishonesty and perceptions of Pakistani students. The critical review in the next journal criticized about the Methodological concern and theoretical concern which involve Sample of the analysis, research tool and procedure of study.

Journal 1

Cheating habit among undergraduate students

Batool, Saeeda; Abbas, Anam; Naeemi, Zahra. International Journal of Business and Social Technology, ISSN 2219-1933, 01/2011, Volume level 2, Concern 3, p. 246


This research paper has taken into account the factors that persuade students at the undergraduate level to cheat. The essential reason for this research paper is to analyze the reason why that persuade students to cheat at the undergraduate level. In such a paper, the factors taken in to bank account are learner CGPA, parental pressure, insufficient preparation for a particular exam, student's time consumed in extracurricular activities and gender on the level of cheating done by students. Specifically, because of this paper the word 'cheating' means the next; cheating on quizzes, examinations and assignments. For research and data collection purposes, the full total sample size used is 300 undergraduate students from five different colleges. With the info that was collected, research was done through cross-tabulation and other tools for defining the relationship between the dependent and unbiased variables. Last but not least, this newspaper also discusses the relationship between your factors that cause undergraduate to cheat.

Journal 1

Critical Review

Methodological Issue

Sample of the Study

A total of 300 undergraduate students were involved in this research. 60 undergraduate students were determined from five different universities and schools. The universities and colleges that were engaged were NUST Business College, Bahria University, FAST, Islamic International University and Shifa Medical College or university which are all situated in Islamabad. Despite the fact that the sample size of every institution was equivalent, the data out of this research cannot be generalized worldwide because of the small sample of this research and the competition of the test. Despite the fact that the test size of the analysis was equivalent, but it is anonymous that if the male ratio and feminine ration are similar in each test size. Moreover, the data that were gathered were all from the undergraduates in Islamabad, which composed of mostly Midsection Eastern students. In addition, the institutions were not chosen randomly, due to the organizations were chosen predicated on the authors' capability to conduct the study. Thus, it'll be inappropriate to make use of the title of the research which is "cheating behaviors among undergraduate students" because of the data can't be generalized.

Aside from, that it is unknown that whether the participants were chosen randomly or the members voluntarily participate the research. But, in cases like this, the researcher most probably adapted the technique of convenient sampling. Even though, convenient sampling allows researcher to gather data easily, but it addittionally has the element of selection bias which might influence the results of the research.

Research Instrument

In this research, the research workers use questionnaire as the tool to gather data from participants. The use of questionnaire in this research allows the research workers to gather standardized data from a huge group of participants efficiently. However, the specific individual differences one of the participants cannot be observed due to the research method that was used which is questionnaire. Not only that, the devices that was used (questionnaire) is probably not reliable, since it was created by the researcher himself which is not shown to be reliable. Aside from that, the questionnaire itself also limits the individuals from presenting personal reasons that brought on those to cheat; because the questionnaire is a shut down ended questionnaire that only allows individuals to rate the provided factors that induced those to cheat in the exam. Besides, the individuals were necessary to provide his or her information when answering the questionnaire. Information like, name, contact quantity (optional), current semester, gender, institute and CGPA were required. The necessity of providing information might jeopardize the correctness of the data. Even though members were advised that information that were provided will remain confidential, however, many individuals might still feel uncomfortable to answer the questionnaire truthfully due to the probability of others might know she or he has a minimal CGPA.

Even though the use of questionnaire has a number of constraints, but it can have its own advantages which is, it generally does not have any moral issue. However, the researcher should use more solutions to collect data, rather than just using one technique which is questionnaire to accumulate quantitative data, the researchers should use mix mode research solutions to collect both qualitative and quantitative data in order to get a more reliable and exact data. For instance, researcher should incorporate other methods like in person interview or use a surveillance camera to observe the students tendencies during tests. Although the utilization of security camera might breach the code of ethic, but this method has very minimum amount risk to the individuals and the benefit for it, is higher than the chance. Because, by using surveillance camera, researcher will be able to collect a more accurate data, due to the participants don't realize these were being observed and can act normally, thus getting rid of demand attribute.

Theoretical Issue

In this research paper, the researcher provide the reader a definite description of 'cheating' which was learner who copied content from another student. There are a total of five hypothesis and five factors, and every one of the hypothesis are clear and specific. The hypotheses are, 'Students with high CGPAs aren't willing to cheat, Men have an increased inclination for cheating than females', 'A high amount of parental pressure with respect to getting good marks causes students to cheat', 'Shortage of planning for an assignment, quiz or exam escalates the chances of cheating', and 'Participation in extracurricular activities reduces enough time students devote to their studies which causes them to cheat'.

Even although researches explained a few hypotheses that triggers the students to cheat during exam, but those hypotheses might only be considered a few factors that causes students to cheat, in order to totally investigation why undergraduates students cheat, more factors should be added into the research. Besides, the study paper didn't provide the reasons why the mentioned factors induced students to cheat in exam.

In the results section of this research paper, the researcher mentioned that, the correlation analysis implies that all variables are positively associated collectively, and the occurrence of one somehow triggers the other factors to appear as well. This assertion is contradicting, because both variables which were described (parental pressure and student's craving to cheat in exam) in this research weren't correlated as shown in the results section.

In the first hypothesis, the researcher stated that, students with high CGPAs are less likely to cheat because they're satisfied with their results and are fear of getting caught when they cheat. But this can be happen one other way round, the students with high CGPAs should satisfy their need of high CGPAs and therefore, they cheat in the exam.

In the third hypothesis, the researcher explained that, you can find near to zero degree of romance between parental pressure and the students' desire to cheat. Meaning, high degree of parental pressure do not cause students to cheat in exam. However, there could be one here, because the result for this hypothesis is not significant, it does not imply this hypothesis is not true. It simply just means that, there isn't enough facts to reject the null hypothesis.

Even though, there are a few defects in this research, the final outcome of this research is clear and steady with the research paper, no additional information was added. Besides, the researcher also contains the restrictions and recommendations for future research.

It is a interpersonal norm now that people receive education everywhere you go and as the number of people raises, the syllabus analyzed will be changing in accordance to the number of keystone discoveries created by people as well. In other words, the expectations in education increase straight proportional to the number of students pouring in to pursue education year by year, leading to a ripple result that drives a rise in the number of cheating cases in accordance to the amount of students taking examinations annually. This research newspaper is effective and important; because it helps educationists throughout the world understand why students cheat in examinations. In addition to that, students which were trapped cheating in the tests can be traumatized by shame, by identifying the factors that triggers students to cheat; the needless traumatized experience can be reduced.

Journal 2

Academic dishonesty and perceptions of Pakistani students

Mian, Sajid Nazir; Aslam, Muhammad Shakeel. The International Journal of Educational Management24. 7 (2010): 655-668. Summary

Academic dishonesty is a matter of great matter in higher education for last few generations. The dishonest action of students at graduate and undergraduate level has turned into a severe concern for education and business sectors, particularly when the students exercise same dishonest procedures at their jobs. The present research aims to address this matter by investigating the perceptions of students towards academic dishonesty and checking out the security and penalties for dishonest serves of students. A well-structured questionnaire was used to accumulate the data from 958 respondents their studies at graduate and undergraduate levels in different Pakistani universities. It's been discovered that students entail in academic dishonest acts more frequently about that they consider to be less severe. Furthermore, they also suggested lower or no fines for the same dishonest works which are perceived as less severe. The results provide a strong implication for academicians to build up the moralities and ethics in students so that corporations may provide ethically cultivated pros to the business enterprise community. The research paper is pioneer in its mother nature to explore the educational dishonest works of students and their perceptions regarding some of the measurements of academic dishonest and integrity in Pakistani school students.

Journal 2

Critical Review

Methodological Issue

Sample of the study

In order for the info that were gathered can be generalized, a complete of 1000 questionnaire were allocated to mature graduate and undergraduate students that be present at professional course like business, executive, public administration and commerce in a number of Universities in Pakistan. Even though, 1000 questionnaire were distributed, the questionnaires were later filtered, and only 958 from it were found functional, contributing a total of 638 males and 320 females which era from 16 to 30. Regardless of the researcher's effort of collecting data from older students to be able to generalize the data, the data is difficult to be generalized because Pakistan is made up of multiple ethnicities and the social record of the ethnicity might be one of the factors that causes learner to cheat. Besides, the study stated that he only collect data from mature students, which is a form of selection bias, because junior students in university might cheat in exam and tasks as well.

Research Instruments

In this research, the experts use a well-structured self-administrated questionnaire as the device. The questionnaire is divided into two parts, with the first part targets demographic factors like gender, era, CGPA, program and subject major. The next part of the questionnaire however targets 13 of the most typical unethical academic functions that scholar may involve in. Students were asked to describe how frequently does he or she will involve in unethical functions by using five point Likert Level (with one means never and five stands for always involve). The usage of Likert Size in the questionnaire is very beneficial, it is not hard to construct, easy to read and complete, looked after has a highly reliable range (Page-Bucci, 2003). By using Likert Scale in the questionnaire, the reliability of the questionnaire is increased. Alternatively, even although researcher has used the gender, CGPA and etc. as demographic factors, but ethnicity had not been contained in those factors. The reliability of the research is probably not high, because the questionnaire didn't include ethnicity into the demographic factors, credited to cultural history may also cause scholar to cheat in exam. Asides from that, the use of questionnaire limits the members from giving his or her own view about academic dishonesty, and thus, the individual difference is not being discovered. However, the utilization of questionnaire did not breach any code of ethic.


The questionnaire was distributed to students in course at various colleges in Pakistan. Students got around 15minutes to complete each questionnaire. The accumulated data were later examined using Cronbanch's alpha (SPSS16) and it produced a co-efficient of 0. 85, and the researcher has turned out that the value of this alpha is higher than 0. 5, which make it reliable and valid. In spite of this, it is anonymous that whether the classes in the universities were chosen arbitrarily or could it be selected predicated on convenient sampling. Aside from that, it is also unknown that, were the participants voluntarily needed part in the study or these were given extra credits to be a part of the study. Because, if the individuals received extra credits for the effort of getting involved in the study, the individuals might screen demand characteristic and felt obligated because these were given extra credits.

Aside from that, individuals should get the questionnaire individually instead of requesting all the individuals to use the questionnaire in course, because members might felt embarrassed when these were completing the questionnaire near by their peers and friends, plus they might wrap up providing a socially suitable answer, that will contribute interpersonal desirability bias and jeopardize the results of the research.

Theoretical Issue

In this research there are no specifically mentioned hypothesis, instead, this research focused on investigating the perceptions of students towards academics dishonesty and discovering the security and penalties for dishonest serves of students. Even though this research is lack of hypothesis, but it is good that the hypothesis is unavailable in this research, since it will get rid of the expectation bias in this research and therefore, making this research more appropriate.

In the results portion of this research, the researcher mentioned that, predicated on the statistics, the female has a higher CGPA ranging from 3. 00 to 4. 00, male however, has a low CGPA starting from 2. 50 to 3. 50, which reflects that females are more hardworking and eventually achieving good marks as compared to their guy counterparts. This statement however, is not entirely true as the ratio for men are higher as compared to the females. 67percent of the members are male in support of 33 percent of individuals are female, due to the overwhelming variety of men against females, the results on the overall results for the male's CGPA is expected to deteriorate. . Not just that, male participants on another palm might be hardworking as well, but they were involve in extra activities and influencing their grade, therefore the statement of feminine participants are more hardworking as explained in the results part might not be true.

Aside from that, the researcher also found out that roughly 90 percent of the total respondents were found to be never involved or rarely involved in dishonest serves like copying exam from cheating material, stealing the exam material. And this is almost certainly due to individuals understand this as a more severe acts plus they suggested higher level charges for these dishonest manners. However, students perceive issues like copying assignment/ project survey from internet without citation as a less severe action and the information demonstrates participant involved in this act sometimes and therefore they suggest a lower level penalty for this dishonest behavior.

In the finish of this research paper, the conclusion is consistence with the rest of the research newspaper which is members suggest lower penalties for the less severe dishonest patterns that they usually involve in and suggest an increased penalties for the dishonest patterns that they seldom involve in. In addition to that, this research also confirms the finding of another research which is scholar consider exam related habit as more severe than collaborating on home assignments and tasks.

This research paper is important, since it strains on the ethics of undergraduates, and the moral issues can be brought up to work and in the end the society composition. However small of an issue it may seem to this modern culture, it is going to develop into increased issues if neglected as people do not realize the severity of dishonest action.

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