Discuss the impact of abuse and neglect on childrens attachment and their neuropsychological, emotional, physical and behavioural development.
Review cure approach to dealing with abused children justifying you choice with regards to outcome research and also the ways that the approach address the various impacts of child abuse and neglect.
We become the adults that we are today, throughout the encounters that people had as a kid. If the person had a great, constructive and happy childhood, grew up in a functional family, surrounded by friends and nested in a safe neighbourhood, such a person will most likely feel confident and strong, not fearing the future. On the other hand, one which had a chaotic childhood, living along with an unsupportive family surrounded by domestic violence and pain, rather than having anybody to lend protection, this individual will probably grow up with insecure thoughts about the future, fearing to handle relationships and will insufficient the strengths to resolve conflicts or simple problems from the normal daily routine.
An abused or neglected child might find him/herself in a solitary space; especially if he/she can't find almost any support; this child will have a high probability to become impulsive, aggressive and may have difficulties in the relationships.
The brain is formed in the early days of the foetus development, researches demonstrate that the mind starts to build up when the ladies are pregnant, and the first years of the life are fundamental for the brain development. Positive experiences and fulfilment of the basic needs, physical and psychological, will determinate a healthy development to the brain.
In according with Perry (Perry, 2004) "Brain growth and development is profoundly "front loaded" such that by age four, a child's brain is 90% adult size. "
Maybe, the brain is the main organ in the human morphology. It is responsible for the movement and balance of your body, behaviour, thoughts and feelings. The mind controls the heartbeat rate, the body temperature, supervises the functioning of the other organs; without the brain's regulation we would not survive. The mind also offers an important function to store memories, among them, those of anxiety, traumatic events or abuse. In short we can divide the brain in three main areas - the reptilian, the mammalian and the cortex (or neo-cortex). The reptilian brain is the primitive part of the brain and its basic task is survival; it controls the autonomous functions as respiration, heartbeat, balance and instinctive reactions; the mammalian brain, which also includes the limbic system as the emotional centre, is responsible for the emotions, short term memory and the body's reaction to dangers; finally the cortex (or neo-cortex) is the hottest part developed in the mind, whose functions are related to the highest mental processes - analysis, logics, intellectual quests. The cortex is usually dominated by the reptilian and mammalian brains.
The brain functions are stimulated from the experiences, good or bad, in the individual's life, and especially the experience from the first many years of life.
The abuse and neglect can have a big effect on the children's attachment. "Early childhood activities play a crucial role in long-term outcomes. In normative development, the attachment system supplies the safe container which allows children to handle and filter the vast amount of new experience they face on a regular basis. Within the safety of this attachments system, like the ability to modify their worlds, and develop an array of increasingly sophisticated developmental competencies" (Schore, 2001)
All the experiences which folks have in life, cause the mind to change, this arrives the brain's plasticity, which means that its architecture and synapses can be rearranged overtime in response to an external stimulus. In essence some regions of the brain display more plasticity than others, specially the neo-cortex. Consequently traumatic experiences, like: physical and sexual abuse, neglect, substance use, mental Illness, incarceration, emotional abuse, divorce or separation, and prime carer abuse; are expected to cause changes in the brain, and the ones changes will carry the causal footprints, in cases like this bad outcomes are expected from bad experiences.
The leading function of the mind is usually to be conscious about what goes in the body and what goes on the surroundings, surrounding your body, this is the self-preservation instinct performed basically by the reptilian and mammalian brains. By doing so the body is often ready to defend itself and survive from any kind of harm. As individuals, our company is oriented toward seeking our own well-being. Hence we tend to approach new resources, in hope of finding a reward in them because of this behaviour. However in some situations, our past experiences may have taught us that such pleasure-seeking behaviour might be punished. Our other behavioural options then include fight or flight (two means of eliminating dangers that threaten your body's integrity) or inhibiting our behaviour to be able to go unnoticed and therefore avoid confrontation (frozen). The brain from a child who suffer a continue abuse can maintain a fight-flight-frozen mode.
The children have a standard development of the brain if she has good and stables experience in family, a reasonable neighbourhood, grandparents around, good opportunities to learn how to walk and talk in a safe environment, in this manner the children understand how to regulate herself, of course this child will confront challenge situations and new experiences, however she will have the ability to deal with the standard life challenges, because she's a support and are able to self-regulate. This child will understand how to cope with the stress and she'll create resilience in her life.
Children survived from bad encounters of abuse and neglect from her parents or caregivers, feels insecure and afraid. Those children might feel lonely, with no sense of protection or safety. Their lives become a chaos, particularly if their parents are drug addicted. Many children have to provide for her selves in the early many years of life and sometimes they have to look after their brothers or sisters in extremes situations of neglect.
Researches showing the children brain who suffered abuse will be always in alert, looking forward to the next bad experience to happen, always awaiting for the worse to happen with her. In various words is similar to this child is surviving in a war, waiting for another bomb to be through it, however children responds in a different ways, some children respond in a fight-flight mode and other children respond in a frozen mode, they dissociate from the problem, it's like they not there anymore, because the pain is to strong and the mind need to somehow to safeguard the children.
Usually the children that respond with a fight-flight mode display an aggressive behaviour, those kids are always in big trouble at school, because they can't not regulate their feelings plus they explode, because the mind are in the fight-flight mode. They are usually anxious children and had insecure or disorganized attachments in the early days of life.
In according with Perry (Perry, 2004), " Compared to their peers, therefore, traumatized children may have less capacity to tolerate the standard demand and stresses of school, home and social life. When faced with challenge, for example, resilient children will probably stay calm. Normal children in the same situation could become vigilant or perhaps slightly anxious. Vulnerable children will react with fear or terror. "
When the children are calm, they may use different part of the brain to process information, in various ways, however when they are afraid and anxious they use only primitives regions of the brain, they live in state of alert and are not able to absolve or process information properly in as soon as.
The very good news is the contemporary researches had learned that the mind has a huge plasticity and the some way the brain can be destructed from bad experiences, It also can be regenerated from repetition of good experiences.
In according with (Perry, 2004), " Along with the adequate repetition, this therapeutic healing up process will influence those parts of the mind altered by developmental trauma"
The impact of abuse and neglect in the child in the infancy is enormous. The children can be afflicted neuropsychological, emotionally and physically, also impact in the children behavioural development may cause mental health illness in the future.
Fortunately, modern day researches showing us how brilliant are the human brain. The basic needs and a good and safe care in the begging of life is a key to avoid so many pain and frustration. A big education and policies to avoid family violence is essential to prevent more abuse and neglect in the society and repetition of strong models and good experiences are essential to help the abused children to possess a much better life and feel safe.
(B) Review cure approach to dealing with abused children justifying you choice with regards to outcome research as well as the ways in which the approach address the different impacts of child abuse and neglect.
It is essential for a complexly traumatized child to have a safe, predictable environment that provides the foundation for their recovery and development of a positive identity.
It takes a carefully staged approach to help the kid to develop the capacity to manage hi/her thoughts and regain their equilibrium when distressed. The child also needs positive, structured repetition so that she/he can start to progress through the developmental stages that have been disrupted through the chaotic and traumatic early years.
The attachment, Self-Regulation and competency (ARC) provides a base framework for intervention.
The ARC model is grounded in theory and empirical knowledge about ramifications of trauma, recognizing the core ramifications of trauma exposure on attachment, self-regulation, and developmental competencies.
The ARC model can offer a safe, structured and predictable environment to contain and help stabilise the kid and family's distress, steadily seeking the child strengths, vulnerabilities, challenges and resources, steadily strengthening their capacity to recognize and regulate their emotions, behaviours and attention, fostering the development of a range of survival skills and competencies that will provide an optimistic personal identity, a feeling of control and self-efficacy, creating supportive links and sense of belonging.
Attachment- Is a stage when we develop a safe and structured environment that is attuned to the child and really helps to stabilise their distress, providing predictable routines and rituals, like weekly schedules with activities and appointments, setting steady limits, children abuse usually must be in control because they don't really feel safe. Building a nurturing, therapeutic relationship that supports them as they learn to identify and express feelings in a safety way.
Regulation- Building skills in identifying and connecting to feelings and reading others feelings as well. Help the children to gradually develop internal controls and the capacity to modify emotions, behaviour and attention. The kids will figure out how to express and communicate emotion safely, also recognising and adjusting to changes in emotional states.
Competency- Seeking the child strengths and resources; tuning into successes and providing praise and recognition, building on the child's strengths and talents to promote an optimistic self-concept, creating opportunities and coaching, so the child can gain mastery in relevant skills.
Encouraging the kid evaluate outcomes to construct their sense of control and self-confidence
Children feeling safe in their living environment and also manage emotions and regain their equilibrium when they get upset. Having a sense of efficacy predicated on their increasing of competencies, a capacity to sustain positive interpersonal relationship is very important for the child build a positive self-image and have a sense of belonging.
In according with (Perry, 2004), "The mind altered in destructive ways by trauma and neglect may also be altered in reparative, healing ways. Exposing the kid, over and over again, to developmentally appropriate experiences is the key. "
Childhood maturation is dynamic, the precise competencies and resources that'll be target will be diverge from child to child, so is important have a person assessment to identify an individual pre-existing conditions, family issues, systemic stresses and resources.
In according with (Kinniburgh, Blaustein, & Spinazzola, 2005) "Traumatized children need a flexible method of intervention. ARC has been developed in response to the challenges as a intervention framework made to address the array of developmental vulnerabilities experienced by the complexly traumatized child because they build or restoring competencies, identifying and improving internal, familial, and systemic resources, and providing a foundation for continued growth.
Higgins, D. (1998). Mulri-type maltreatment: Relationship between familial characteristics, maltreatment and adjustment of children and adults. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Burwood: Deakin University.
James, M. (1994). Child Abuse and neglect: Incidence and prevention. Family Matters(37), pp. 80-85.
Kinniburgh, K. J. , Blaustein, M. , & Spinazzola, J. (2005, May). Attachment, Self- Regulation and Competency- a thorough intervention frameqoek foer children with complex trauma. Psychiatric Annal, p. 35:5.
Miller- Perrin, C. L. , & Perrin, R. D. (2007). Child maltreatment: An Introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Perry, B. D. (2004). Maltreated Children: Experience, Brain Development, and another Generation. New York: W. W. Norton.
Schore, A. (2001). Ramifications of a secure attachment on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health. Infant Mental Health Journal(22), 7-66.
US National Research Council. (1993). Understanding child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
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