Child and Adolescent Development Theories

Keywords: piaget theory, erikson levels, bandura developmental theory

Child development is the procedure of change and stableness in children from conception through adolescences (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2008). Throughout history child development had not been considered important and little attention was paid to the many developments in cognitive talents, physical progress, and dialect use. Children were viewed as miniature adults and also considered an encumbrance. Children were cared for like adults, such as their responsibility of work, matrimony, monarchy, and even their design of dress. By the end of the 19th century, many advances in the western world paved the way for the scientific study of child development (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2008). Child and adolescent development is a combo of intricate mechanisms and systems, which take place in the higher world environment. Each theorist has another perspective on development, yet, they all concur that the thing that affects development most is the external, societal environment. On the five major perspectives I thought we would compare the theories of Piaget, Erikson, and Bandura, to explain why the understanding of normal child and adolescent development is important in assisting children to attain their full probable.

During the first year. 5 of the child's life, the infant grows at an extremely rapid rate. The infant develops physically, emotionally, emotionally, and even socially. The physical development identifies the newborns increasing ability to make use of various body parts. For example, the newborn learns to make use of their hands for picking up objects. Motor skills and development identifies the child's ability to control movements. For example, the kid is able to use their electric motor skills to get from point "A" to point "B". Brain development is an essential process that helps a child respond more to eyesight and audio, which helps prepare them for further development. These developmental techniques work together to ensure a child is able to reach their full probable.

In order for analysts and scientists to explain these developments, several ideas of child and adolescent development have been created. Of this five major perspectives, the kid development theories of Piaget, Erickson, and Bandura, have helped make clear why the understanding of normal child and adolescent development can be an important part of your child's efficiency. Each of these theories suggests that children develop in a similar way, yet each stresses that different parts of development are of main importance.

The cognitive-stage theory of Jean Piaget has provided a great deal of explanation to the analysis of child and adolescent development. Piaget, a biologist and philosopher by training, advised that children's cognitive development developments in some four stages regarding qualitatively specific types of mental businesses (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2008). Piaget researched cognitive development by observing and communicating with children including his own. The four stages of Piaget's theory include the sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, and formal procedures stage.

The sensorimotor level occurs between delivery and two years of age. On this stage the infant creates a knowledge of themselves along with a knowledge of how things work around them. The infant does this through interactions with the environment. The infant learns through assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation allows the infant to soak up new information and then combine it into existing cognitive constructions (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2008). For example, a child that is aware of how to seize a favorite toy and put it in their mouth area may use the procedure of assimilation for another object they see such as car secrets. By doing so the newborn has assimilated a new object with a vintage schema. Accommodation allows the infant to change their cognitive structures to include the new information (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2008). For example, an infant considers a new object to grab, like a beach ball, but unfortunately the old schema can not work for this object. With this said, the infant creates a fresh schema that accommodates the new thing. Both assimilation and accommodation work hand in hand to help improve the infants knowledge of the world around us and their place in it.

The preoperational level occurs between two and seven years of age. This stage allows the child to develop a representational system and use symbols to represent people, places, and happenings (Papalia, Olds & Feldman, 2008). The use of dialect and creative play are a primary example of a symbol that helps the kid create their system. An example of creative play is whenever a child uses a doll of s