Coaching - Organizational Psychology


Counseling in an organization can be divided into two categories: consulting, leading to the employee mastering the skills necessary for successful work in the organization and counseling, mainly aimed at stimulating the employee's own activity.

Organizational consulting aimed at forming the necessary corporate competencies is associated with existing or planned and standards. The standards, regulations of the organization are justified, are built on the analysis of successful experience and are passed on to employees in the "patterned" mode of work, when the individual characteristics of the employee (trainee) must be adapted and built into the realities of the organization. At the same time, in a modern organization, thinking or behavior that differs from the standard from the point of view of the organization is increasingly required from the manager or employee. In this connection, there arises the need to work with the learner's own activity, the formation of conditions that encourage him to consciously implement the planned plans.

Organizational counseling aimed at obtaining a concrete result is coaching (English coaching, the term is introduced by an English businessman and consultant John Whitmore, in translation means "instructing, preparing , train ).

The origins of coaching lie in sports coaching, positive, cognitive and organizational psychology, in the notions of a conscious life and the possibilities for a constant and purposeful development of a person. In foreign consulting practice, coaching was born as a special style of interaction between a teacher-coach and his student based on the reflection of advanced approaches in the field of mentoring, business consulting, psychological counseling and psychotherapy. Predecessors and sources of coaching are:

- a humanistic approach in psychology and psychotherapy;

- the work of Daniel Goleman in the field of emotional intelligence;

- the development of partnership, dialogue, participation, involvement as a trend of modern life and business;

- the methods of the most effective sports trainers;

Technologization of business processes (including human resources management processes of the organization).

In life (professional activity or family life) there are sometimes obstacles that a person sees, understands what needs to be corrected or added to one's own life. However, there are invisible obstacles to change. I understand everything, but I can not do it correctly. or I can not figure out how to do this correctly. or "I'm not getting anything, although I'm doing it right."

Coaching technologies are aimed at creating internal conditions for a person, organizing an environment that facilitates the movement of a person to the desired goals, so that it brings satisfaction. The coach acts as the organizer of an environment in which there are conditions for the all-round development of the client's personality. The coach client is a self-sufficient adult personality, therefore the development work is aimed at realizing the potential of the client. Coaching is built on the client's independence, the opportunity for him to be himself, to seek new ways of solving existing problems outside the usual schemes and experience. Coaching is not copying a successful experience, not getting advice from a wise helper, not a psychological accompaniment, not a cure. Coaching clients are focused on internal changes, where the value itself is the result of the changes.

Coaching has its own characteristics that distinguish this type of work with a client from mentoring, psychotherapy, counseling or training. The joint work of the coach and the client allows solving the problems arising in any area of ​​his activity. In the process of coaching sessions a person finds and uses his own resources. In general, all the work is aimed at gaining new experience and acquiring new ways and methods of solving the "old" tasks.

Coaching is used to change the client's thinking and behaviors to achieve realistic goals, verified by the SMART methodology The goals must be specific ( Specific, measurable ( Measurable), are achievable ( Achievable), are realistic and are pragmatic ( Realistik), are timed ( Timed). The coach, working to achieve the goals of his clients, works purposefully and systematically, a strict sequence of steps, approaches and techniques is used.

Coaching is aimed at something concrete in the life of the client, is built on the actual performance of the tasks assigned. Coaching is impartial, the client is not given an assessment of his reality or points of view. He is given a safe space in which he can freely express his thoughts without any assessment. However, he is not given the answers to which he must come, he is aware of something new on his own. The coach works towards increasing the awareness, abilities and freedom of choice of the client. Coaching is conducted in the form of a dialogue between the coach and the client (personal contact or telephone). For the client it is necessary that he wants to work on his goals. The coach offers the client that he as much as possible to explore the topic discussed and examined it from all sides. The main tool for this is the coach's questions and his interest in the client's answers.

In coaching, you can conditionally select four main areas: personal coaching; coaching families and couples; corporate coaching (coaching specialist or leader) and team coaching.

Personal coaching considers the achievement of the goal in the personal interests of the individual. Coaching families and couples - achieving the goal in the interests of the whole family and taking into account the needs of each member of the family separately. Achieving the goal or solving problems in the interests of the company leads to awareness of the prospects, makes the career in the company clearer, improves the results and performance of the business.

The work of the coach and the client is characterized by co-efficacy, is built on the creation of joint activities, where there is interaction of two equal partners. It is possible to formulate the principles of co-active coaching:

- the client is originally a creative, complete person and has the appropriate resources;

- coaching refers to the whole life of the client as a whole;

- the statement of the problem comes from the client;

- the relationship between the coach and the client is a purposeful alliance.

The Alliance allows the client to determine the possibilities of his self-realization, as a state associated with the client's deep values, helps to reflect on life goals (sometimes put them), correlate them with professional goals , to build the programs of the future. In the coaching session, the client analyzes the prospects, takes responsibility for their actions and themselves as a whole, is working in the vector of the "future", not the past. The alliance is working "here and now". In this case, the coach uses the usual techniques of adjustment and emotional support for the consultant, stimulating the client for activity and initiative.

The alliance of the coach and client is built from the first meeting, confidentiality, trust, naturalness are formed. At the first session, a contract is formed, where methods, duration, logistics, mutual expectations are negotiated.

One of the main forms of contact are hearing techniques. Along with the techniques of active listening, usual for counseling and psychotherapy, passive listening is used, stimulating free "talking" client, his initiative and activity, other communication techniques, such as sentencing, clarification, metaphors.

J. Whitmore proposed a GROW model, representing a sequence of questions, four characteristic directions, where the initial letters form a word. His approach structures the process of coaching, which is based on the logic of deploying sessions:

- Goal is the goal;

- Reality - Reality;

- Options - options;

- Wrap-up - totals.

The first stage of the session (goal) is the choice by the coach and his client of a specific problem for discussion and determining the ultimate goal of the discussion. There is a definition of tasks and objectives (setting targets, priorities).

During the second ethane (realities), the coach and the client give an assessment of the situation and give concrete examples in support of their arguments. The coach creates conditions for understanding the current situation (problems) by asking questions and actively listening, the client explores the situation and his attitude to it together with the coach.

Then they go to the third stage (options), suggesting ways to solve this problem and selecting the most constructive ones. During the session, the coach stimulates an understanding of what hinders the client in achieving the goal, and helps him in understanding and researching obstacles. The client explores his internal and external obstacles on the way to the result. To do this, the coach asks questions and uses other methods that provoke an employee to seek solutions and overcome constraints.

At the conclusion (results), the coach and client develop an action plan, determine the time frame for achieving the desired results, and discuss ways to overcome possible obstacles. There is a choice of a concrete variant of actions and drawing up of the plan. In this case, the coach helps the client in the analysis of opportunities. The coach and the client agree on what exactly needs to be done for the next meeting (a certain date).

Together with the coach, the client builds a chain of events necessary for success, which are discussed and visualized. In the coaching session, the client has a reason to independently change his life (professional and personal).

Examples of coaching are the achievement of goals: building a career in the organization; removal of specific internal restrictions in work; the creation of cohesive workers or project teams; construction of a system of non-material motivation of personnel; change management; project management; increase in sales efficiency; formation of competitive advantages; positioning a product or company.

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