Schizophrenia is a neuro-cognitive disorder or in simple conditions be referred to as a mental condition. It usually attacks during early on adulthood or past due adolescent periods of your respective life. However, enough time of occurrence may vary and it is not necessary which it occurs in all these schedules of a person's life. Also, the symptoms of this disorder vary from one individual to another.
The most significant and common symptoms of Schizophrenia are delusions and hallucinations. Individuals with schizophrenia typically experience hallucinations, delusions, incoherent conversation, and thought. In most cases this disease leads to social isolation because of the fallout of the factors. Delusions are beliefs that are not actually true but are an imagination of the person who is experiencing this disorder. In the same way, hallucinations are circumstances of mind wherein the person hears noises and voices which do not exist in reality. A few other symptoms of the disorder bizarre speech and behavior, and disorganized speech. Disorganized speech can be further explained as the speech of the person experiencing this disorder is difficult to grasp.
There are also a few symptoms that are known as 'negative symptoms' of Schizophrenia. They include reduced cognitive function, plummeting emotional expression etc.
Thesis Statement - An evaluation of the Cognitive Behavioral Remedy (CBT) in dealing with a neuro-cognitive disorder - Schizophrenia.
The Brain in Schizophrenia
Most of the elements of the brain and quite a few regions of the brain operate within an excessive fashion in a person who is suffering with Schizophrenia. A few of the abnormally working parts in a Schizophrenic brain are Basal Ganglia, Auditory system, Occipital Lobe, Frontal Lobe, Limbic System, and the Hippocampus.
Abnormalities of the Brain parts - A short synopsis
Basal Ganglia are an integral part of the brain which is involved with movement and emotions and also in integrating sensory information. It is in this part of brain of the schizophrenic patient that hallucinations and paranoia is must take place and the same is considered as the abnormality related to the particular area of the brain. Similarly, the Auditory System allows human beings to listen to and interpret conversation. In people having Schizophrenic disorder, over activity of the Wernicke's area which is also called as the talk area is have a tendency to create hallucinations of speech. This is further discussed as circumstances of auditory illusion relating to which the person tends to feel like thoughts and real voices are coming from outside but in truth the same are being created internally.
Another important part of the brain where abnormality happens is in the Occipital Lobe. This part of the brain processes information regarding the visible world. People suffering with "Schizophrenia almost never have full-blown aesthetic hallucination. However, disruptions in this particular section of the brain lead to problems like interpreting intricate images, recognizing movement, and reading thoughts on others' faces (Kamajian, 2010). "
The Frontal Lobe of the brain helps people in problem-solving, procedure, and other critical reasoning. The perturbations resulted by Schizophrenia as a result bring about difficulty in planning and arranging actions and thoughts of people. Moreover, the Limbic System is the part of the brain that involves emotions. Consistent agitation which is common generally in most Schizophrenic patients are due to the irregular condition of the part of the brain. Last but not least, the Hippocampus is the part of the brain that mediates learning and storage area. Both these functions get intertwined in Schizophrenics scheduled to disturbance caused in this area of the brain (Kamajian, 2010).
Schizophrenia - Causes and Treatment
Numerous factors contribute to this ailment. Expert opinion claims that it is a result of interaction of biological, psychological, and cultural factors. That is called the bio-psycho-social style of schizophrenia (Janssen Pharmaceutica, 2009). "Because the causes of schizophrenia are still unknown, treatments concentrate on eliminating the symptoms of the disease (NIMG - National Institute of Mental Health, 2010). " Few Antipsychotic Treatments/Medications those are around for treating this disorder.
"Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), Haloperidol (Haldol), Perphenazine (Etrafon, Trilafon)
Fluphenazine (Prolixin) (NIMG - Country wide Institute of Mental Health, 2010). "
Medications that are recommended for Schizophrenics have a few side-effects like unnecessary drowsiness, pores and skin rashes, blurred perspective, sensitivity to sun, menstrual problem in women, and dizziness.
Cognition in People Beings
Many pioneering theorists in the field of cognitive psychology stated that cognitive learning involves a romance between cognitive environmental cues and objectives. Precisely the same theory has also been analyzed by conducting handled tests on white rats. The experiment led to a final result that cognitive maps of the environment are produced by rats and other family pets found in the experiment. Hence, the theorists of cognitive psychology considered learning as developing a pattern of patterns from bits of knowledge about and cognition of the environment ((ICMR), 2003).
Modern day cognitive psychology predominantly targets the constructions and functions of real human competence, like the role of memory space and information control in learning.
Paranormal beliefs can be defined as almost any unusual experience that actually lacks a technological explanation or rational reasoning. It can be further defined as experiences which signify the phenomena which can be comprehended only beyond the medical skills of today's era. Paranormal beliefs can be considered as values that are either intuitive or reflective and at the same time containing the different parts of cognition, love and occasionally tendencies related (Irwin, 2009). Addititionally there is research that is happening recently that vindicates the connection between paranormal beliefs are being mediated by unique cognitive styles for Schizophrenics in comparison with people who do not have this disorder.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Schizophrenia
Cognitive Behavioral Remedy (CBT) can be defined as a systematic subconscious form of treatment. This treatment was actually developed for individuals battling with depressions. However, CBT today is being used to treat various neuro-cognitive disorders and incidentally this treatment is known as to be the first line selection of treatment targeted at treating anxiousness and depression (Massachusetts Standard Hospital - Division of Psychiatry, 2006).
"Lately, CBT has become named a appealing psychosocial treatment in schizophrenia. Analysts in britain and abroad have determined CBT as significantly reducing distress, psychotic symptoms, and negative symptoms for individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (Massachusetts Standard Hospital - Office of Psychiatry, 2006). "
The fundamental idea of the cognitive therapy is that beliefs, conjectures, and cognitive analysis of your respective own self, the encompassing atmosphere, and the type of individual problems surely have an impact about how things are identified by that particular individual, and exactly how problems are contacted. This in turn chooses the success factors in that individual attaining his specific goals.
The misapprehension of incidents on the globe is a most typical aspect that may be seen in patients battling with schizophrenia. By using the cognitive remedy for dealing with schizophrenia, the psychologist must agree with the fact that the cognitive misrepresentations and lost or unsystematic thinking of schizophrenia are produced, at least partly, by a particular biological problem that will not stop just because the "exact" interpretation of actuality is explained to the individual.
Cognitive therapy can be successful only if the psychologist agrees to the belief of reality that the individual possesses in his mind's eye, and then as a next thing realizes how to exercise this "misperception" to be able to help the patient in properly handling the issues that he has got in life. The primary purpose of cognitive therapy is to aid the patient on using information from the other people, and other' perceptions of occurrences, etc, to make adaptive survival decisions. The goal of cognitive treatment is never to "cure" schizophrenia, but to help the individual in improving his or her ability to manage problems that she or he might be facing with in life, to function without other's help, and to be free of severe anguish and other psychosomatic symptoms (The National Institute of Mental Health, 2004).
"CBTs all broadly try to bring a better cognitive, behavioral, and emotional adjustment to the psychotic experience by suggesting to the patient a new explanatory style of psychosis: the vulnerability-stress model. These strategies require different levels and goals (A. Abdel-Baki, 2001). " A few cognitive therapies aim at correcting certain important cognitive shortfalls or changing the psychotic symptoms and the problems caused consequently of such symptoms. Alternatively, meta-cognitive therapies are yet another form of cognitive treatments that aim to revise and streamline dysfunctional personal and situational schemas to be able to facilitate the introduction of better-adjusted and commonly applied strategies of cognition.
There is not a treatment or treatment available for Schizophrenia. However, there is certainly continuous improvements going on in conditions of recognition of permanent treat, advanced medications, etc. Taking care of that is absolutely interesting about Schizophrenia is that individuals battling with this disorder improve well and respond to medications, antipsychotic treatments and CBTs perfectly. They can lead independent and satisfying lives. Research on genetics, neuroscience, and behavioral research is of immense help for dealing with this health problem.
CBT has become a proven form of additive treatment that has been increasingly used in dealing with neuro-cognitive disorders like Schizophrenia. Cognitive Remedy has proved to enhance social adjustments and quality of living for individuals suffering from this disorder. This therapy also reduces psychotic symptoms and the problems induced by such symptoms. This form of treatment/remedy also addresses all positive, negative, cognitive, behavioral, and psychological symptoms while all together considering the level of the condition and the special needs of the person suffering with this disorder. However, further research is required to ascertain enough time required, the best stipulation frequency, and the specificity of the advancements.
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