Communication as the leading activity of the baby
The leading type of activity in infancy is emotional-personal communication with adults, i.e. with those who mostly care for the baby: mother, father, grandmother, grandfather or other adults. Without the help of an adult, a child can not do, because at this age he is weak and completely helpless. He can not satisfy any of his needs independently: he is fed, bathed, dressed in a dry and clean, moved in space (taken in his arms and walked around the room, taken out for a walk, etc.), followed his health and, that is very important, they simply communicate with him - they talk. All the acts of the care of adults for the baby are accompanied by their speech, which expresses first of all the love for him. In this speech, not so much specific words as general intonations are important. The need for communication occurs in a child in 1-2 months. The revitalization complex, which appears at the sight of a mother or another adult caring for a child, indicates the need for communication, which must be fully satisfied, since with a positive emotional communication with an adult, the child has increased activity, a joyful mood that encourages the development of his movements , perception, thinking and speech.
A child deprived of full communication with an adult (one is in the hospital for treatment, placed in an orphanage, etc.), there is a delay in mental development. Externally, this manifests itself in the following: the child has a meaningless and indifferent look directed upwards, he moves little, languishes, is apathetic, does not feel interest in the environment. All this leads to a delay in physical development and late appearance of speech. Therefore, we must remember the following: to ensure that the child both psychologically and physically developed normally, it is necessary not only to look after him properly, but also to communicate.
Cognitive development of the baby
In the first year of a child's life, in infancy (from 1 month to a year), feelings, perception, speech, memory, thinking develop, and emotional contacts with others develop. Consider how this happens.
Vision is one of the main sensory organs of a person. Therefore, it develops in the first place. At first, the child can only focus on the subject for a very short period of time. After the second month of life, visual concentration becomes longer and there is the ability to distinguish the simplest colors. At 2 months during wakefulness the child is engaged in examining surrounding objects, especially when he is fed and is in a calm state. At this age the infant begins to distinguish people from surrounding objects, but vision is still weak.
By three months there is a fairly good level of development of eye movement, the duration of concentration reaches 7-8 minutes. The child begins to distinguish the form of objects, can monitor their movement. The movements of the baby's eyes will develop faster and become more perfect if bright, attractive objects or people performing various movements, which he will observe, begin to fall in the field of vision.
At 4 months the child looks actively: emotionally reacts to what he sees, moves, squeaks.
A variety of impressions, which the baby receives, contribute to his cognitive development. Therefore, to meet his needs for new impressions, the environment must be made attractive and interesting - otherwise cognitive development will slow down.
This is particularly noticeable in the case of children who, shortly after birth, found themselves in state educational establishments or who were long in hospitals, where there is no such variety of impressions and lacks emotional communication with adults. The resulting delay in mental development was called the "syndrome of hospitalism".
Consider the development of perception. During the first half of life, the main property of perception is formed - objectivity - the correlation of one's sensations and images with the objects of the surrounding reality. The child can distinguish between timbre, volume and pitch, he develops the ability to remember and store in memory images in his primary forms. Until three or four months old, he can store the image of the perceived object for not more than one second, later this time increases, and gradually the baby will recognize his mother at any time. In 8-12 months, the integrity of perception is formed - the child begins to recognize familiar objects, perceiving them not only in a general form, but also in parts.
Domestic psychologist AV Zaporozhets believed that the process of cognitive development in an infant goes as follows. At the age of three months, the perception of the form and size of the object begins simultaneously with the formation of grasping movements. Further development of perception begins with the moment of moving the object in space.
In studying the visual perception of children, it is established that objects close to each other are perceived by the child as a whole. For example, taking the turret from the cubes for the top, the child is surprised why the whole tower was not in the hands, but only part of it. A baby can take a long time to take a flower from her mother's dress, not understanding that it is painted.
As a result of observations of children, it was found that when they perceive objects, they first focus on their shape, then on the value, and only then on the color (at the age of about 2 years).
Infants have a strong cognitive interest. They can consider objects for a long time, highlighting contours, contrasts, simple forms in them, moving from the horizontal elements of the figure to the vertical ones, paying special attention to color. They also expressed an approximate-research reaction to everything new.
In the first year of the child's life there is an active development of memory. All its genetic types develop: emotional, motor, figurative, verbal. Emotional memory helps him navigate in reality, fixing attention and guiding his senses to the most important objects in an emotional sense. Motor memory appears in 7-9 weeks. The child can repeat any movement, there are characteristic gestures for him. Then the infants begin to develop shaped memory. If at 4 months he can simply learn the subject, then at 8-9 months he is able to reproduce it from memory: if the child asks where the particular object is, he begins to actively look for it, moving his gaze, turning his head and torso. The development of figurative memory influences his communication and the formation of related desires - the primary basis of the motivational sphere. When a child has learned to learn, he begins to react differently to acquaintances and strangers
Adults. Family members and other regularly met people, he smiles, and at the sight of strangers or people, frightening him with his appearance and behavior, shows negative emotions.
After six months, the infant begins to form associative memorization, a connection is formed between the subject and the word that designates it, so that he can correctly indicate the object called or find it if it is out of sight.
At this age, the baby's thinking develops. For now, this is a visual-effective thinking, which is expressed in manipulative movements of hands and the formation of operational structures. As a rule, the longer a child considers a toy, the more different qualities it reveals in it. The basis for the development of visual-efficient thinking is the formation of sensorimotor coordination. The seizure of the object is the first purposeful movement of the infant, it is formed at the age of 4-5 months, and in the second half of the life, the grasping movements are differentiated: seeing objects of different sizes or shapes at different distances from themselves, the child starts placing fingers differently in order to grasp them and stretch to them with varying degrees of effort. With the captured objects, the infant manipulates in various ways, studying their properties. Gradually the properties of objects that have become familiar to the baby begin to determine his actions with them - he clicks on the right place of the musical toy to hear the familiar sounds, squeezes and unclamps the rubber toy, so that she squeaks, knocks on each other with hard objects, throws the ball to the floor bounced. Almost all the captured items the baby pulls into the mouth, because This is the most sensitive area of the body, capable of giving maximum information about the subject. Information, obtained from the organs of sight, hearing and touch, the baby, because of the limited experience, is not enough.
Although there is still no active verbal speech in infancy, verbal development during the first year of life goes a long way of development. The main direction of speech development is understanding of the speech of the surrounding adults addressed to the child. By the end of the first - the beginning of the second month of life, the child has a special attention to speech, called auditory concentration. At four months, the infant distinguishes between adult speech by intonation, that
testifies to the ability to use speech as a means of emotional communication. He also focuses on the emotional tone, the nature of the utterance and rhythm. In the second half of life, the infant begins to understand the meaning of words, especially nouns, denoting objects regularly falling in his field of vision. By the end of the first year of life, the child already understands the speech addressed to him quite well.
The development of active speech is manifested in the development of the pronunciation of sounds and their fusion. In 2-4 months there is a gulp - the utterance of individual vowel sounds (a-ah-ah, oh-oh-oh, u-yy-yy, etc.), and in 4-6 months - agukanie, i.e. the union of vowel sounds with an undifferentiated consonant. In 7-8 months babble begins - repetition of simple syllables, in which it is possible to distinguish some repetitive sound combinations, associated mainly with the actions of the child. In syllabic syllables, different consonants are already singled out.
At 9-10 months, the baby utters the first words, most often those that are expected of him by adults and which consist of simple repetitive syllables - "mama", "daddy", "baba", "give", " on & quot ;. By the end of the first year of life, a child can pronounce an average of about 10 words.
L. S. Vygotsky called the speech of the baby autonomous, because it is very different from the speech of an adult, although in its sound it sometimes reminds "adults" words.
E. Erickson believed that in the infancy, a sense of trust or distrust of the world (secrecy or openness to the surrounding world) is formed. The main role in the emergence of this feeling is played by parents, in particular the mother. It is this feeling that will later help the children to adapt in the world around them, establish contacts with people and believe in the best.
The same opinion was shared by the English psychologist and psychiatrist D. Bowlby, author of the so-called attachment theory. Om believed that the close emotional connection established between the child and the mother from the first days of his life, forms a child's sense of security and security. If the establishment of this relationship is violated, then there may be problems in the child's mental development, especially in the structure of his personality.
In order for the child to have no problems in the future, in the first years of life it is necessary to give him warmth and affection, which, according to D. Bowlby, is more important than any correct care and training.
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