Comparison Of Erikson And Bandura Theories Psychology Essay

Albert Bandura was created on 4th December 1925 in Mundare which is a small town in Alberta, Canada. His parents were of polish descent. His theory originated based on his notion that prior and previous theorists had not dealt completely with the most crucial emotional issues and functions. Thus, his new view was referred to as observational learning. This is a theory that reviewed individual learning as taking place when there is abstract observation of other people's behaviors. Corresponding to his theory, people learn by observing other people's actions, they obtain abstract and important information from these observations, they make decisions on which behaviors they are going to adopt plus they finally perform the few decided on behaviors. That is a theory that lists different sociable cognitive factors which influence people's learning like capacity to use symbols and to engage in intentional and solid actions in life. Via icons, people translate observations to inner models which is often in apposition to steer our future habits and can also test possible training of action before we respond. Bandura's interpersonal learning theory is dependant on acquisition of sophisticated behaviors which are established in a triangular illustration that identifies the interactive aftereffect of different factors. These three factors include environment, action and the inner events influencing a person's actions and perceptions (P540 Bandura Group, 1996).

On the other side, Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany on 15th of June 1902. He was a product of an matter who never recognized the first spouse of his mom or even his labor and birth father. In comparison to the theory made by Bandura he developed eight psychosocial levels that a man goes through from childhood to overdue adulthood. His periods in the theory progress cumulatively rather than linearly. Corresponding to him, the manners in one stage never disappear even when one proceeds to another stage. His psychoanalytic principles were made more consistent with the modern-day studies in the science field. The phases in his theory present a steady series of encounters with the surroundings. Where the interplay in Bandura's theory is between your individual and the environment, in Erik Erikson's theory, the interplay is between internal abilities, social affects, natural development and cognitive capacities. According to Erikson, people should visit a person as a way to be in the earth. Every level in this theory has confirmed life crisis and this is described as an extremely critical period in life whenever a person cannot prevent the experienced decisive changes. For each stage, there is provision of new opportunities for given virtues, ego talents all which are needed for development. The psychosocial benefits come from the successful adaptation of the ego to the precise environment but this must be reaffirmed and nurtured continually (Engler, 2008).

There is one major difference between Sociable Learning theory produced by Bandura and Erik Erikson's theory together with other past ideas. The main difference is in the manner he defined learning. His theory posits that people acquire internal codes that could or may not act after us later. His theory thus divides performance and understanding how to be two different and distinct situations. For him, learning is the acquisition of inside symbolic representations which are commonly in form of visible and verbal rules. These usually become our guidelines in our future actions/behaviors. Observed ram codes on action are called representational systems. These are further divided into two different systems: verbal conceptual and imarginal/visible. Aesthetic/imarginal category deals with happenings of abstractions of distinctive features while verbal-conceptual deals with details that are in verbal form. Modeled habit in this theory conveys important message to observers in three ways. First, it may be via social fast where a person initiates a similar behavior in a number of other people. Secondly, through taking actions that either weaken or bolster existing restraints of an learner against given behaviors performance. Thirdly, it involves transmission of new action patterns. According to Bandura, there are three different weaknesses that are found in Behaviorism. He postulated that in behaviorism, there are limited behaviors which is often explored in a lab, the theories cannot take into account new responses acquisition in situations and that behaviorism concentrated only on direct learning (a situation where a learner will perform response to see outcomes). His theory is thus an obvious description of postponed matching (indirect learning) in which a learner only observes any strengthened behavior so that he may enact an identical behavior.

After conducting considerable research, Bandura figured an individual's tendencies whether normal or unusual, good or bad is discovered through imitation of other people's behaviours. Since our infancy, we have the tendency to develop response to your specific models that are provided by the society we reside in. Erik Erikson's theory points out a child requires the comfort of the parents in the original stages of life to be able to develop trust. Failure to get this from the parents results to mistrust. But in Bandura's theory, our parents will be the models from whom we learn principles such as language, acceptable manners and culture's traditions. Bandura was plainly an outspoken critic who described that our societies are determined by the models that people present to our kids. Violent manners are evident because of the amount of time children watch tv set, video gaming and movies (Albert, Dorothea and Sheila, 1963). His research on models provided to children in several societies shows that since what we see is what we become, there is absolutely no good distance between accomplishing a violent take action and watching extreme animated heroes.

There are three factors that Bandura described as the major affects in modeling: model's characteristics, observers' characteristics and the prize results that are associated with conducts. The characteristics of the model determine our inclination to replicate their behaviors. In our lives, we imitate those who appear a lot like us. Love-making and age group are various other factors of the model which may determine our trend to imitate them. Children mainly imitate behaviors of those from their sex rather than those of the opposite sex. In addition, a style of our own age is much more likely to influence us and we finish up imitating the behaviours. Behavior types from the model also determine our extent of imitation. Behaviors that are so complicated aren't easily imitated in comparison to simpler conducts. Also, the individual who is observing has attributes which may determine the potency of learning. People with low self-esteem and self confidence are highly more likely to imitate others in comparison to those who have high self-esteem and high self-confidence. Rewards consequences that are associated with specific conducts affect the magnitude to which we may be modeled. That is a factor that essentially may even override the impact of observers' and models' characteristics. This implies that a style of high status may impact us to imitate certain manners but in circumstance the rewards aren't beneficial that tendencies may be disbanded and its most likely that even in future we may well not be inspired again to imitate such a person.

Observational learning never occurs in a situation where the observer has not paid nay focus on the model. Just revealing the learner to a model provides no make sure that the learner will pay attention to important cues that could stimulate situations. A learner must accurately perceive his model so that acquisition of necessary data is obtained for imitation of model's tendencies. These are referred to as attentional operations. In his method of personality, self is not taken as a psychic agent that triggers behavior but it's rather a set of cognitive set ups and processes worried about conception and thought. You can find two important aspects of the self which can be self-efficacy and self-reinforcement. According to the public learning theory, self-reinforcement is important just like reinforcement given via other people. People place personal behavior expectations and achievement criteria. We have the propensity to encourage ourselves as soon as we go beyond or meet the given prospects and punish ourselves by failing woefully to meet the anticipations. Any self-administered reinforcement may either be tangible like a car or be mental like satisfaction or pleasure for nay work very well done. Alternatively, self-administered consequence is portrayed via depression, guilt or shame since we have behaved in ways we didn't want to. Self-reinforcement shows up somehow similar from what Erikson known as superego or for other theorists' conscience. But relating to Bandura, they don't really imply the same. Much of people's patterns is controlled by a continuous process of self-reinforcement. That is a mechanism that requires reference details, subjective criteria or performance expectations against which we might evaluate behavior. Former behaviors may in a single way end up being the reference tips for assessing current behavior. As soon as we attain confirmed achievements level, this might not challenge gratify or motivate us and thus we raise expectations since we require more of ourselves.

Self-efficacy is the ability to control our situations in life. Those folks with low self-efficacy are helpless and they always quit easily the moment they experience obstacles in life. Alternatively, those who have high ratings in self-efficacy are capable of persevering in difficult jobs and their performance is of higher level. We basic self-efficacy judgments on vicarious encounters, physiological arousal, performance attainment and verbal persuasion. People who maintain and meet their performance standards do improve their self-efficacy but inability to do this result in reduced amount of it. Those of us with low self-efficacy destroy motivations, physical health, hinder cognitive talents and lower our dreams. Self-efficacy does mean that we assume that we can.

On the other hands, personality development under Erik Erikson's theory is identified in eight levels. His theory mainly targets psychosocial correlates. Development process according to Erikson depends upon epigenetic principle of maturation. That is to imply that inherited characteristics end up being the determining forces in levels of development. Prefix epi stands for "upon" to suggest development depends upon genetic pushes. Environmental and interpersonal forces where we have exposure influence the way in which where predetermined genetic stages in development are came to the realization. This is to mean that Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory posits our personality development is afflicted by both social and biological factors. This may also signify both situational and personal variables. You can find personal conflicts in every the stages defined in this theory. These personal conflicts still is available at delivery in form of innate predispositions. These normally gain prominence in various stages of development as the environment from time to time keeps challenging specific adaptations. The confrontation with the surroundings is what's known as a crisis. Crisis is a big change in perspective and this telephone calls us to refocus on instinctual energy so that this can maintain accordance to the needs of each stage in development life routine. Every level in this theory has a specific turning point or turmoil and this is what necessitates change in personality and patterns. Respond to the crisis is within two methods: either in an adaptive (positive) manner or in a maladaptive (negative) manner. An individual's personality development can only just move forward normally if the problems is settled. Resolving the discord in one stage gives a person enough strength to handle turmoil in the preceding stage. This translates that failing to resolve crisis in the original stages creates incapability to deal with problems at later periods in the life cycle. Whether or not a successful outcome may be possible it becomes very hard to achieve.

Since atlanta divorce attorneys stage there's a potential positive outcome, this is a theory that gives enough optimism even when there is crisis in every stage to deal with. One is bale to resolve the situation in conditioning and adaptive manner. In which a person develops weaknesses of maladaptive response, expectation is still there for the remaining stages. In such a theory people are capable of consciously directing their progress throughout life. This is to mean that by the time we attain mature ages, we cannot be taken to exclusive products of experiences in our child years years. Affects in the child years are essential even though any happenings inside our late stages may counteract early on activities. This theory is however partly deterministic. The encounters that people get subjected to in the original four periods via peer teams, educators or parents and other opportunities may be beyond our personal control. The opportunity to exercise free will is only available in the last stages however the strengths and attitudes formed through the initial fours stages may affect the options that we have. It's thus significant that Erikson assumed that experience and learning affect personality more than heredity. The psychosocial activities become the greater determinants in this theory however, not the instinctual biological factors. The primary goal for all of us is to come up with a favorable ego identification that is capable of incorporating basic advantages.

Erikson's theory is a "coherence theory of fact" and it is one of the quality philosophical viewpoints which may be used to comprehend personality. This theory will not lie on medical view only but it emphasizes the existence of philosophical elements in theory development. There is a perception in him that a reasonable theory of personality requires a quality philosophical base. For him, vital moral commitments are there in a psychoanalytic framework. In order for him to facilitate an understanding of moral commitments, he explored superego evolution and additional differentiated among adolescent ideology, baby morality and adult ethics. This is what he used to show software of epigenetic ideas in conscience development. Furthermore, ego strengths as reported by Erikson are moral beliefs via which people may strive. The philosophical statements of Erikson are simply explicit (Schultz, 2009).

Bandura's cultural learning theory points out our environment establishes our personality and the reason distributed by Erikson seems to endure some similarity with this. That is so because Erikson believes that our development depends upon the epigenetic theory to imply that every stage is entirely dependent on genetic factors. However in the end, it's the environment that helps in perseverance of whether all have been became aware. In broad framework, he presented an optimistic and a flattering image of human being character. He has expounded upon this in his theory to show that individuals have capability to resolve conflicts in an exceedingly positive manner, they can perform basic strengths plus they can also point their development consciously. For him people aren't victims of heredity factors and encounters in childhood however the major impact in development comes from social relationships and learning.

The two theories have however faced criticism. Since Bandura's communal learning theory stresses overt action, critics argue that is a theory disregarding personality aspects like sentiment and motivation. Their analogy to make clear this criticism is identified using patients with abdomen pains. Your physician working with overt patterns is only going to treat patients by requesting them to stop clutching their belly, stop complaining and groaning. The necessity when this happens may be either surgery or medication. Thus critics dispute that a doctor must treat both cause and the symptoms. But overall, this theory is very objective. This is one of its major merits. Alternatively, Erikson's theory is not relevant to women. This theory has also been criticized by other theorists who have argued so it cannot be put on individuals who are economically disadvantaged since in their adulthood they can not obtain moratorium in their adolescent phases in order to explore various assignments and then develop ego personal information. But this is a study that completely depended on case studies. Sizeable support on research literature is available for most phases of the idea and it could present the image of your nature within an optimistic manner.

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