Comprehension of fear - Psychoanalysis. Modern deep psychology

Understanding Fear

Modern psychology reveals a heightened interest in the problem of emotions. Emotions are inherent in animals and people. They are an irreducible part of the psyche. The natural emotions are such as joy, excitement, curiosity, expectation, hope, interest, surprise, sorrow, suffering, depression, anger, aggression. They are innate. Higher human emotions are formed in the course of education. Emotions act as regulators of communication and activity. They are expressed by gestures, facial expressions, postures, intonations and other means.

As noted by K. Jaspers in the work "General Psychopathology", it is often reported on the individual points noted at the beginning of the illness, such as isolated deceptions of perception, a distinct change in the level of impressionability. In the early stages of the process, sometimes - especially among relatively educated people - a fear of insanity is revealed, accompanied by extreme anxiety and attempts to dispel fears and experiencing others. Example: a patient sends a finger of his girlfriend in his mouth to see if she will show signs of fear. She is not afraid that he will bite her, which means that she considers him quite healthy; for some time this conclusion calms him. Further, the fear of mental illness and the feeling of impending madness are common, but objectively unjustified symptoms that occur, in particular, streets with psychopathies and poorly expressed cyclotomy, i.e. who, in fact, do not have to be considered sick.

Many wise men, from the ancient philosopher Democritus to the modern thinker J.-P. Sartre, tried to penetrate into the nature of fear. Fiction touched on various facets of this phenomenon of human nature. Mention of fear can be found in the works of thinkers of the Ancient World, Antiquity, New time and modernity. Many of them have studied the nature of man as a whole (Aristotle, On the Soul, R. Descartes, The Passion of the Soul, B. Spinoza, Ethics, D. Hume, Treatise on Human Nature, and others). Theories that were created within the framework of philosophy before the emergence of psychology as a science (the end of the 19th century) can be attributed to the classical theories of emotions: Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, T. Hobbes, R. Descartes, B. Pascal, B. Spinoza, D Hume, K. Helvetius, P. Holbach, I. Kant.

Fear at the same time was considered within the framework of specific conceptual systems. But the most important and interesting are, perhaps, the holistic (ie penetrated by the idea of ​​integrity) aspirations of Aristotle, the views of R. Descartes (fear is the extreme degree of cowardice, amazement and fear), the doctrine of B. Spinoza about the origin and nature of the affects, his systematic approach to understanding fear. D. Hume dialectically connected the surface (situational) and basic (individual) causes of fear. The description of the essence of fear and the role that it plays in human life on a spiritual level can be found in fiction and in the works of existentialists.

According to Plato, in an ideal state, fear is distributed unevenly: fears are alien to philosophers-rulers, since they do not have self-interest; warriors should not fear, for they strive for glory; and the third estate can not but strive for profit and self-interest, and therefore it must live in fear. It is the possession of property, according to Plato, that gives rise to fear. According to Aristotle, fear is one of the affects (passions of the soul), which has two extremes (vices): cowardice and unrestrained courage. Virtue is defined here by the average measure of passion, which is achieved through the reasonable part of the soul and is called courage.

Epicurus believed that to achieve the highest good (happiness), one must avoid fear through reason. Fear of Epicurus is differentiated: fear of the gods, fear of necessity, fear of death. The fear of the gods is generated by the false opinion that the gods interfere in human life. Fear of fate can be destroyed by recognizing the presence of niches of freedom as a result of the spontaneous deflection of atoms from a straight line. The absurdity of the fear of death is proved by the fact that there is no sensation in death, but all good and bad in sensations. In Stoicism, fear is seen as a "generic" passion. Stoic apathy as an ideal also involves fighting fear, along with other generic passions: sorrow, pleasure and desire. The struggle with fear involves overcoming its components: horror, timidity, fear, shock, torment.

According to the Christian interpretation, there are three types of fear: God (which is recognized as virtuous), fear, false fear (which are considered vicious). According to the Bible, fear appears as a consequence of the fall of Adam and Eve. In the Old Testament, two aspects of fear are traced: on the one hand, fear is a consequence of the violation of the divine commandment, the inappropriate relationship of a person to God, it gives rise to a sense of guilt and returns the believer to the law of law; on the other hand, the fear of God is a fundamental characteristic of a proper attitude toward the Creator and is expressed in awe of reverence for the mysteries of Divine being.

In the Renaissance with a change in the view of man, the fear of God ceases to be perceived as a virtue

(J. Pico della Mirandola). R. Descartes opposes fear to hope, understanding it as the inclination of the soul, aimed at convincing about the unfulfilled desire. T. Hobbes considered fear to be an attribute of a person's natural state. Fear is overcome only in a society based on a treaty, although here it does not disappear completely. By J.-J. Rousseau, on the contrary, the natural state is characterized by the absence of hostility and fear, and the social state is characterized by their presence. B. Spinoza proclaimed the goal achievement in the human behavior of a state that governs not vague inclinations (including fear), but a clear knowledge of its actual causes. Freedom of man is incompatible with religious alienation. Fear is overcome by reason. B. Spinoza proclaimed the goal achievement in the human behavior of a state, governed not by vague inclinations (including fear), but by clear knowledge of its actual causes. Freedom of man is incompatible with fear, which is overcome by reason. L. Feuerbach associated fear with religious alienation; Overcoming fear is possible through the realization of the principle "man to man God." According to F. Nietzsche, Christian morality is based on fear: man "won himself the right to be pitiful and unworthy in absolute." Fear develops to a state of ressentiment, interpreted as a combination of impotence, envy and fear. This morality, according to Nietzsche, should be contrasted with the morality of the superman, based on fearlessness and truthfulness.

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