Chapter 1. Emergence of Conflict Ideas, Formation of Conflictology

Attempts to comprehend the role of conflict in the life of man and society were first made in the era of Antiquity. An example is the famous statement of Heraclitus: "The warring is unifying, from the divergent - the most beautiful harmony, and everything happens through the struggle."

The idea of ​​conflict from the social stratification of society was developed in the teachings of Plato - the author of the model of the ideal state, according to which people and their virtues were located on a three-tiered hierarchy:

1) peasants and artisans, who provide with their labor the material basis of society, are a class of inferior virtue (self-control, obedience);

2) soldiers and officials who must unquestioningly fulfill their duty: to protect the state (to reflect the attack of external enemies and maintain order inside, to protect laws), - the estate of virtue of courage;

3) the rulers who define the law and govern the state are the class of the virtues of wisdom.

According to Plato, slaves do not possess any virtue and therefore can not take part in the political life of the state. This expressed the antidemocratic position of the philosopher who preached the aristocratic form of a slave state, capable of suppressing conflicts by violence and oppression.

Apothecary of Plato Aristotle in his treatise "Politics" pointed to the sources of conflict, including property and social inequality of people, as well as arrogance, fear, disregard for the law, dissimilarity of characters, excessive elevation of some and humiliation of others.

Conflict in the image of "war of all against all" permeates the doctrine of the society of the English philosopher T. Hobbes. He believed that people are equal in nature, but equality inevitably generates continuous conflicts and clashes between people. To get rid of clashes, people by mutual consent, by "contract" pass to the state system. Thus, a state is formed that T. Hobbes likens to the mythical biblical monster Leviathan.

According to the philosopher, the conflict existing between people, which is the result of natural law and limited resources, is a conflict not basic, but secondary, and in its solution the main arbiter is the state. It follows that a person can not have sovereignty, which is the exclusive prerogative of the state, therefore only the state is capable of resolving conflicts, suppressing and even expelling from society.

One of the first definitions of social conflicts was given by the French philosopher and sociologist O. Comte. From his point of view, sociology is a social science whose purpose is to reveal the characteristics of the social organism as the integrity of a global society as an evolving system. Therefore, at the center of his attention is the achievement of a social consensus emerging on the basis of overcoming conflicts in the process of synthesizing the diachronic and synchronous components of the historical process. The second of these components is the social situation & quot ;. O. Comte states that she isolates the elements - the family, property, division of labor, the state, as well as language and religion, which, with a combination of favorable conditions and opportunities, contribute to the achievement of social consensus.

Among these elements, the division of labor, which leads to the stratification of society into different groups, classes, and the emergence of conflicts between them, is of major importance. According to O. Comte, social dynamics allows us to understand how these conflicts arise and by what means they can be overcome. From the point of view of the philosopher, the political and moral crisis of a society shaken by conflicts is the result of imperfection and anarchy of thought.

One of the most famous theoretical concepts of social conflict is associated with the name of K. Marx. In his opinion, the class structure, socio-political system, culture, ideology, religious dogma, philosophical ideas and other elements of social consciousness are a reflection of the economic basis and reproduce in a specific form the contradictions inherent in it, they are permeated with social conflicts.

Thus, in the Marxist sense, social conflict, firstly, is always connected with the opposite of the interests by which opposing social actors (the bourgeoisie and the proletariat) are guided. Secondly, it is the most abrupt and open form of manifestation of social contradiction.

Simultaneously with the Marxist theory of conflicts, various and sometimes very interesting and, in many respects, productive conflictological concepts arose and developed.

The author of one of these concepts was the famous English sociologist G. Spencer. He viewed society as a single organism, an integral system, each part of which fulfills its specific specific functions. Based on the principle of the struggle for existence, G. Spencer considered the confrontation and conflicts as universal states, saw in them the universal law of social development, which ensures equilibrium not only within an individual society, but also between the entire society and its natural environment. He developed a methodological approach to the analysis of social phenomena, which in sociology is known as functionalism. The essence of it is as follows:

- every element of a social system can exist only within the framework of integrity, performing strictly defined functions;

- the functions of parts of a single social organism presuppose the satisfaction of any social need and are together aimed at maintaining the stability of society, its stability;

- failure in the activity of this or that part of the social system creates a situation of hard-to-break violation of some vital functions;

- the preservation of integrity and stability, and therefore, the overcoming of conflicts are possible, they are ensured by social control, the consent of the majority to the system of values ​​adopted in society.

Thus, conflicts, being inevitable, significantly stimulate social development.

A significant contribution to the creation of the foundations of the sociology of conflicts was made by the German philosopher and sociologist G. Simmel, who introduced the term "social conflict". From his point of view, social conflicts in society are inevitable and inevitable. In his fundamental work "Social differentiation" G. Simmel thoroughly analyzed "pure forms" socialization, the whole process of man's acquisition of a certain system of knowledge, norms and values. According to the philosopher, the social is first of all interpersonal relations, where the conflict, although it is one of the forms of disagreement, but at the same time acts as an integrating force that unites opposing, contributes to the stabilization of society.

A significant contribution to the development of the theory of conflicts was made by the eminent French sociologist and philosopher E. Durkheim. From his point of view, the leading role belongs to the social fact. "These specific facts," writes E. Durkheim, "appear as external to individuals, since they are in the very society that creates them, and not in its parts, that is, in its members." Therefore, social facts are an objective reality that does not depend on the individual. These social facts "constitute the modes of thinking, activity and feeling that are outside the individual and endowed with a coercive force, which they impose on him," exerting "external coercion" on him. According to E. Durkheim, this forms a social conflict.

The development of society is carried out through the formation of social groups and the social solidarity that arises within them, which "is the sole arbiter for resolving conflicting interests in determining each respective frontier." Solidarity does not allow individuals to destroy each other in a fierce struggle.

At the beginning of the XX century. attention to the development of conflictology has intensified. The American sociologist R. Park, when developing the concept of the development of the social system, came to the conclusion that four important processes interacting at the core of social dynamics: competition, conflict, adaptation and assimilation.

Competition, he argued, reflects not only the struggle for existence, but also economic rivalry. The difference between competition and higher forms of integration is essentially the boundary between communication and the awareness of social contact. In the transition of this face, competition becomes a conflict, and the individuals or groups fighting among themselves become rivals or enemies. The object, because of which the struggle is being fought, is also changing. "Competition," writes R. Park, "determines the position of the individual in the territorial community, the conflict denotes its place in society." The spatial position, the position of economic interdependence - these are the features of the territorial community. Status, subordination and superordination - these are the features characterizing society. "

Thus, in R. Park's opinion, the conflict is the most common process of social interaction. It is through the emergence of conflicts, their resolution, and then the emergence of new conflicts that require new approaches to their elimination, "territorial community is transformed into society". The conflict acquires in this concept the importance of the most important determinant of socio-political development, yielding its role in the economic sphere of society to the process of competition.

In contrast to sociologists and philosophers, psychologists, explaining the conflict behavior of a person, put him in dependence on psychological factors, which made conflictology in the late XIX - first half of the XX century. specific integrative branch of knowledge.

Within the framework of the psychoanalytic concept developed by Freud, his disciples and followers K. Jung, A. Adler and K. Horney, the main object of theoretical analysis and clinical activity in psychology and psychiatry are intrapersonal conflicts.

Founder of psychoanalysis 3. Freud noted: "Man suffers from a conflict between the demands of the drives and the resistance that rises in him against them, and we never for a moment forgot about this resisting, rejecting, displacing authority that has its own special forces , aspirations. The basis of the intrapersonal conflict, in his opinion, is the mismatch of the functions of the three main components of the psychological structure of the individual. Among them:

1) It (Id) - is localized in the unconscious (the initial instincts and drives are nutrition, sexuality, avoidance of danger and death); seeks immediate satisfaction of desires regardless of the subject's relation to objective reality and is completely illogical and immoral;

2) I (Ego) - consciousness and self-consciousness of the person as a function of perception, evaluation and understanding of the external world and adaptation to it in accordance with the principles of reality and rationality; 3) Super-I (Superego) - the highest authority in the structure of the personality, which is formed in the process of assimilating the norms and values ​​of culture, fulfills the role of an internal censor and is guided by the principles of conscience and duty, moral requirements.

In the event that contradictions arise between any of these three components of the personality, an intrapersonal conflict develops, leading to various neuroses, a disagreement with the outside world, and with oneself.

Apprentice 3. Freud, the Austrian psychologist A. Adler, in contrast to his teacher, rejected his idea of ​​biosexuality. In the center of his attention were interpersonal relations. In human relations A. Adler considered the main social factor. He argued that a person can not be considered in isolation from society, since man is primarily a social being.

Outstanding Swiss psychiatrist and psychologist K.G. Jung developed the ideas of Freud and gave them a broader, not only psychoanalytic, but also social content. He stressed that "a person endowed with the instinct of self-preservation, from the very beginning of his existence is in the struggle with his own soul and her demonism."

K.G. Jung asserted that an intrapersonal conflict is realized through the interaction of oppositely directed trends: external extraversion (the person's primary focus on the objects of the surrounding world), implying concealed introversion (the predominant concentration of the interests of the individual on the phenomena of his own inner world), visible manifestations of the domination of thinking and reason-the inner predominance of the senses . The intolerance of such conflicts can lead first to unhealthy sentimentality, and then to an aggravation of moral conflicts, which logically leads to the Nietzschean "on the other side of good and evil."

So, whatever sphere of human activity in society we take, everywhere the conflict has its own autonomous dynamics, which ensures the development and functioning of the social system.

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