Conclusion - History of Psychology


The current period of interaction between foreign and domestic psychology is characterized by the influence of many factors that determine its development, and, first of all, the ideological factor - rejection of the ideology of Marxism inherent in Soviet psychology.

Marxist psychology was rooted in Hegelian philosophy with its dialectic, a special understanding of science, distinct from the Cartesian science and directed toward the study of society. In this way, it favorably differed from the methodologies of other foreign scientific directions (phenomenology, positivism, pragmatism).

Marxist psychology did not succeed in using the scientific potential inherent in the philosophical category of activity, at first it was born in the form of "subject activity" (AN Leontiev), connected with the knowledge of the objective world, and only later acquired more modern forms in Lomov's works ("joint activity", the basis of which is communication) and Shchedrovitsky (methodological reflexive activity - reflections on one's own thinking). Therefore, the revision or even the rejection of certain postulates of Marxism should not be extended to the whole theory of activity, which can be recognized as the achievement of Soviet psychology, along with foreign categories of personality, motive, behavior, etc.

The second factor is the practical discovery of the Iron Curtain between our country and other countries.

This circumstance led to radical changes in the publishing business on the United States book market poured previously inaccessible foreign literature on psychology, creating the illusion of the influx of new, previously not known ideas and concepts. Practice has shown, however, that the majority of the "new" coming from abroad turned out to be a well-known old one, that the "Iron Curtain" existed rather in the imagination of politicians, in fact the exchange of ideas between scientists was carried out constantly. So, a new direction appeared - acmeology, a kind of humanistic psychology (AA Bodalev, AA Derkach, NV Kuzmina).

However, we must admit that the opening of the curtain influenced the increase in the general psychological culture of the population, since the literature on psychology (the publication of foreign authors) was addressed to the ordinary passer-by ("how to become rich", "how to be healthy", "how to keep sexual activity", "how to make a career" ;) and is presented in the vein of "positive psychology", which appeared in the West recently, in the new millennium. The advice presented in such books is not so much useful as encouraging. For domestic psychologists, their success has become a lesson: to become famous and bought, one must write not only and not so much for specialists as for "passers-by". This, in turn, led to a "pop", a decrease in the quality of psychological scientific information - from academic to philistine.

The third factor was the socio-economic development of our country, the transition from an industrial to a postindustrial society, informatization, in particular the development of the Internet and mobile communications, the desire to join the global economy.

Informatization of the country clearly demonstrated the ability of network users to communicate with each other, exchange information and coordinate their actions. Moreover, communication has become international and worldwide. All this could not but affect the psychology of the country as a whole and the science of psychology in particular. Science ceased to be academic, became closer to social interests and less categorical in its conclusions, it began to serve the interests of society.

From the Cartesian ideal, science is increasingly receding into the alternative, "dialectical" her understanding, which suggests that scientific truth is not something objective, not dependent on the actions and consciousness of people, but the product of the interaction of the object with the subject, as philosophers like to express, and especially expressed in the social sciences, where it acts in the form of human interaction with other people. In this sense, scientific truth is a projection on the world of personal representations of the scientist, coordinated with the representations of other carriers of truth. Especially it is traced in theories of personality, each of which expresses, first of all, the identity of its creator.

The history of mankind has by no means ended with the victory of liberalism, the establishment of universal peace and tranquility, as F. Fukuyama wrote about this in the article "The End of History?". This victory was connected, first of all, with the collapse of the Soviet system. But in less than a few years, the broken balance between the two superpowers turned into a war in Yugoslavia, Afghanistan, and after 2001 - in Iraq and the Middle East. In short, the story continued its turbulent course.

Observing all that was said in the last paragraph, and throughout the whole book, it can be argued that the history of psychology, like the history of mankind, is far from over. And it remains for us to wait for its continuation and to the best of our strength and desire to participate in it.

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