There are extensive theories taken from the disciplines of sociology, biology and mindset that explain individuals development from the each disciplines point of view. Baltes (1987) cited in Crawford and Walker (2010), says that human development is multidimensional. Individuals development is contacted from several theoretical perspectives which may be classified as psychoanalytic, learning, cognitive, sociological, natural or ecological ideas.
Broadly, theories of human life course development can be categorised into three disciplines specifically; sociological, biological and emotional. Sociological ideas emphasise cultural and environmental factors as having a direct effect or affect in human being development. Biological ideas give attention to the physical development, hereditary influence, human development phases and instinct. Biological theorists would dispute that human behavior for example, is genetically established. On the other hand psychological theories focuses on how are you affected in the mind, psychological development, personality development and related behaviours. This school of thought describe individual development as levels or phases that individuals proceed through.
According to Crawford and Walker (2010), human being development ideas can contribute our understanding of individuals and their situations. Different theoretical methods lead to different methods to social work procedures. It is important that social staff gain access to apply and critically evaluate these theories whenever using children and their families. As a interpersonal worker, one should understand the origins, underlying assumptions, advantages and limitations of the theories in practice.
The pursuing is a talk of two ideas of child development and their usefulness in safeguarding the welfare of children.
Bronfenbrenner's theory of bioecological development
This is a bioecological theory as defined by Boyd and Bee (2009). It points out real human development in terms of romance between people and their conditions as illustrated in the diagram below.
Adapted from http://edwinchartfellow. wordpress. com/research-project-2/
John is 14 years of age and lives is a sizable deprived housing house with a reputation for anti-social action. He will not attend institution and spend most of his time with a gang of more aged young adults. He has a brief history of fraud and he misuse substances. He has lived most of his life in the treatment of family. His daddy Paul and grandfather have criminal records. His father happens to be in prison. His mom Eve gave birth to John when she was 16 years and she uses drugs and alcohol. John's aunt and her hubby lives a few mls away and have offered to look after John. These are determined Christians and desire to support John and wish to support him to improve his behaviour.
According to Bronfenbrenner, real human development is inspired by natural, socio-economic-political and ethnic environment one expands in. Bronfenbrenner. (1979) bioecological theory states that there are four domains that impact child development and these are natural factors within the kid, the family, the immediate surrounding such as university and the city, and the socio-economic environment in the wider world. The contexts of development are like circles within circles. Hence, it is imperative that social workers understand the environment that the child grows in to have the ability to guard the welfare of children.
The inner circle is the biological context which caters for the child's hereditary make-up and development. Such factors may include genetic inheritance, sex/gender and healthy all contributing to an level in the child's development.
The next levels encompass the role of nurture. This point of view argues the surroundings, experiences and the way a child is raised affects the child's development. Public employees have to take this into consideration in safeguarding the welfare of children.
According to Boyd and Bee (2009), the microsystem pertains to variables which children are uncovered straight, such as their own families, colleges, churches, and neighbourhoods. The culture in which the child in given birth to and grows up is affected by the immediate environment. The family prices which may include spiritual upbringing and affects, class room peers, and neighbourhood has a solid impact on the character and values of an individual. In John's microsystem, we have to consider the influences of his parents and immediate family members.
Parents' participation with the school and the response of the institution to their engagement are area of the mesosystem. Shaffer and Kipp (2010), refers to mesostystem as the cable connections and interrelationships among microsystems such as home, institution and peer categories. The child's development may very well be optimized by strong supportive links between microsystems. For instance, the child's ability to learn at college depends on the quality of instructions that his teachers provide and also on the level in which the parents value, support and co-operate with professors. Alternatively none of them supportive links between microsystems can spell catastrophe (Steinberg, Dornbusch and Dark brown, 1992 cited by Shaffer and Kipp (2010)).
The next level is the exosystem (the socioeconomic). This includes corporations of culture that indirectly have an impact on the development of children. Included in these are the community, institution, parents' workplace, prolonged family, neighbourhood, and mass media. The exploration of John's exosystem leads us to look at the local deprived community associated with anti-social behaviours where John lives.
The macrosystem symbolizes the wider ethnic context within which all the other systems can be found. This includes the economic, communal, cultural, background and laws in which a child increases. This wider context may refer to a country or talk about a kid is brought up. For instance, education funding exists in the socioeconomic framework. A specific country may highly think that children should be educated (cultural framework), but the ability to provide common education can be tied to the country's prosperity (socioeconomic context). The macrosystem where John lives, include interpersonal factors like the economic and politics factors in the united states that could impact upon John and his family.
Social personnel must understand and appreciate that the development of the child encompasses biological, the role of the immediate environment like, parents, siblings, class peers and in the wider framework involves the prolonged family, neighbours, as well as the socio-economic condition in which the child lives. For example, the development of the unborn child may be damaged by the impact of medication use of the mom. Crawford and Walker (2010), declares that the Bronfenbrenner strategy is based on the rule that the development and behaviours of people can be completely realized in the context of the environment where they live.
Bowlby (1969) defines attachment as;
"A deep and enduring psychological bond that connects one person to some other across time and space"
It doesn't have to be reciprocal. Furthermore, Bowlby (1969), claims that attachment in children is characterised by specific behaviours like wanting to maintain touch or closeness with the connection figure whenever you are threatened or annoyed. Attachment behavior in men and women is displayed with the way they react to the child's needs.
Attachment theory provides understanding to how parent-child romance emerges and has a bearing in succeeding years. Children need to feel secure in their marriage with parents or service giver. Early interactions are important because they are viewed as having critical role in the child's emotional well-being throughout their life development. Regarding this later life, Payne, 2005 p81 cited by Crawford and Walker (2010), p43 states that;
"How we are will depend on how exactly we experience early interactions. Comfort, mutuality, support, and security are characteristics of connections that tend to produce coherent and well-organized later selves".
Bowlby is convinced that child development personality lay down in the first years of child years which any failure in the early relationships would forever influence the development of the child's personality. Bowlby (1969) is convinced that attachment produces through four attachment phases as briefly explained below.
Pre-attachment period (labor and birth to three months): This is often referred to as indiscriminate attachment stage. Child can be mounted on any good care giver. A child forms connection to whoever feeds it.
Focus using one or more results (3 to six months): Infants learn to distinguish between main and secondary care and attention givers and would admit good care from anyone.
Secure based attachment phase (6 to 24 months): True connection develops in this stage. Infants look to certain health care givers for security, cover and comfort. Fears of strangers and unhappiness when separated from attached attention giver known as parting nervousness, is a attribute of this phase.
The reciprocal romantic relationship phase (24 months and beyond): In this phase a kid becomes a lot more independent and varieties several parts. These several attachments can include attachments to siblings, grandparents, neighbours and friends.
The attachment phases causes the following types of attachments and social workers need to understand these if they are to effectively work with children and people. Attachment serves as a secure. So long as the good care giver exists a securely attached child will play pleasantly and react favorably to strangers and will become visibly annoyed when their moms leave. Attachment can be referred to as avoidant. This is for example; a child avoids connection with the mom at reunion after an lack. The child will not show any inclination to mother over a stranger. The insecure/ambivalent attachment type is where in fact the child shows little exploration and is wary of strangers. The child gets very annoyed when separated from the mother. The kid may show anger at reunion and withstand comfort from the mom and stranger. The very last type is the insecure/disorganised connection which is characterised by misunderstandings, disoriented behavior.
Boyd and Bee (2009), declares that social employees should comprehend that early psychological relationships shape later ones in life. Securely attached children in infancy are later more sociable, positive in their behavior towards friends and siblings, less dependent on teachers, less ambitious and disruptive, more empathetic and psychologically mature in their relationships in college and outside the home. If attachment is not made between 0-3 years from birth, the child may never form an connection with anyone. A securely attached child is able to develop resilience, self-reliance, conformity, empathy, control over their thoughts, and health self-esteem. Taylor, (2010) argues that for healthy and secure connection to develop, a child needs to experience both closeness and separation. On the other hand, insecurely fastened children tend to have difficulties in creating relationships, seem indiscriminately friendly to whoever is just about, extremely withdrawn and little if any interest in other folks.
Social workers may use connection theory in examination of children and family members. For example, the social worker can use connection theory to comprehend how past activities relate to present challenges. Gambie et al (1992) cited by Daniel et al (2010) assumes a traditional nuclear family provides a superior child rearing environment. Almost all emphasis is on the western model of the nuclear family which may well not be experienced by children who may be looked after by extended family who are part of the attachment network. Interpersonal workers have to be respectful and delicate towards varied patterns of care supplying and parts within different communities. The key concern ought to be the assessment of if basic needs are being satisfied. Nearly all children experienced by social employees dealing with child safeguarding have complications which can be related to attachment issues. Connection theory can therefore offer perception to guide involvement. For children in attention, attachment theory can help understand both the impact of parting from important people and the process involved with making new attachments.
Dworetzky et al (1989), states that our understanding and understanding of individuals development are tied to the actual fact that no two human beings are ever exactly the same. As a result of this, theories of real human development won't be 100 per cent or even near to it. Furthermore, Lightfoot et al (2009) states that there is no theory that can completely explain human development. Social personnel work with vulnerable people. Of both theories identified above, each has its own strengths, weaknesses and context in which it is useful. According to Shaffer and Kipp (2010), young families are complex cultural systems that are vibrant. Every family member is constantly growing and their associations change as time passes.
The complexity mother nature of family life and its influence on individuals development can best be referred to by Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory. Boushel 1994, p. 179 cited by Daniel et al (2010) states the next regarding Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory and what public workers need to take into consideration when safeguarding the welfare of children and individuals;
"The construction for assessment of a child's protective environment should recognize the part played out by their state and society generally, the part played out by the community within that your child live and the part performed by the individual family".
The African proverb "it requires the whole village to raise a child" is true for this theory. This process recognises that children do not develop up in vacuum pressure. In the case analysis above, John's behavior has been affected by the microsystem (family) as well as the exosystem (neighbourhood). In assessing John's needs, the cultural worker will need to use these areas of Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory. This process requires that the child never be assessed in isolation. Daniel et al (2010) argues that the bioecological method of child development shows that detailed assessment of all areas of the child's situation include factors of all levels that are immediate and of wider impact and is vital to the planning of intervention with children and individuals by social employees. This theory provides knowing that each lifespan is exclusive as every individual in influenced by their particular surroundings. This theory assists with influencing government policies and programs that can benefit a given community. Regarding John's environment, resources can be channelled in growing the house and demonstrating facilities for young people to get occupied and occupied.
On the other hand, Shaffer and Kipp (2010), argues that bioecological ideas are insufficient in giving profile of human development. The interior individual level encompasses the role of character in child development. This point of view argues our genes predetermine who were and our characteristics are inherited. We've in born natural characteristics that are hereditary from our beginning parents at a spot of conception. This position shows that change is not possible and we are everything we are and we cannot do anything about it. This argument gets the potential to stereotype people which leads to support prejudice and oppressive behavior and social workers should be aware of this in safeguarding the welfare of children. Despite it being truly a bioecological theory, it includes little to say about specific biological contributions to human being development. The emphasis is on the producing person and the regular changing environment.
Attachment theory may make a difference for work with children but its request to individuals is less evidenced. Konstantinos and Georgios (2006)'s research supports Bowlby's realization that combination culturally; attachment comes with an effect on one's socio-emotional development as well as psychological well-being through life course. There are various limitations which have been cited on attachment theory. Connection theory does not account for some people who got insecure attachment relationships with their mother but however continued to form secure romantic interactions with their companions in adulthood. Connection can still arise in adulthood. The connection procedure ignores the temperaments and personalities of people. Harris (1998), argues that parents do not shape the personalities and character types of these children. He believes that their peers have more impact in personality and personality building than the parents. Take for example, a child whose parents are immigrants. The child can continue steadily to speak the parents' local terms at home, but at the same time learn new dialect and speak it without a foreign highlight. Harris (1998) argues that children learn these off their peers to be able to fit in. Pursuing from above, cultural workers should comprehend that parents aren't totally responsible for what sort of children develop. They can be held responsible to a certain level, because after all they did provide them with their genes and for that reason do have some impact. However, children count more on their parents. Another limitation of attachment theory mentioned by Field (1996) is usually that the mother is viewed as the primary connection figure and does not include the dad and siblings who can even be attached to the kid at the same time. Another limitation is the fact attachment is restricted to infancy and early childhood as identified by Bowlby. This will not account for connection that occur in adolescence (first love), adulthood (partner) and later life.
In conclusion, there is absolutely no solo theory that can completely explain individuals development. Attachment theory is more suited to explaining infancy development despite its limits. Alternatively, Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory is more well suited for detailing child development in their adolescence for they do communicate more with the microsystem, exosystem and macrosystem than the infancy do.
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