Construction activity of animals, Constructions of...

Animal building activities

Many researchers are not inclined to consider the construction activity of animals as a separate biological form of behavior, considering it purely auxiliary. We single out it in a separate section in order to draw readers' attention to this aspect of animal behavior, as it is largely a tool and manipulative activity that attracts close attention to zoopsychologists.

A large number of animals build dwellings and other structures that ensure their normal life. The beginnings of construction activity can already be observed in many lower invertebrates, and in arthropods and vertebrates it reaches an unusually high level. Many of their buildings delight people with their originality and unexpected technical solutions.

Therefore, all animals can be conditionally divided into those who build permanent dwellings and spend all their lives in them, and who build temporary shelters for a certain period: for winter sleep or for breeding offspring. Building instincts in animals do not depend on their appearance, size and systemic position. Rough nests of great apes are made of twigs and branches, they can not be compared to the complex underground labyrinths of mouse-shaped rodents, with a cozy mole's nest. And the nests and shelters of rodents can not be compared with the complex dwelling of termites: with a double wall, an infinite number of floors, with carefully maintained constant temperature and humidity. Many representatives of the animal world, guided by their instincts, build houses that surprise with their expediency, comfort and beauty. By saving material, strength and expediency of the construction of animals often are at the level of modern construction techniques. There are often cases when the principles of building animals find application in human practice.

Construction activity can be observed in almost all taxonomic groups of animals, starting with the simplest, other primitive and invertebrates. In most of these animals, we observe fairly simple structures for protecting or laying eggs. However, the structures of arachnids and insects are highly complex and functional. Some of them we considered in connection with food-producing behavior.

The structures that animals build can be systematized as follows: permanent dwellings, temporary structures for obtaining food, nests for protecting offspring.

Lower Invertebrate Constructions

The structures of inferior invertebrates are basically a variety of "houses" of the substrate particles glued together by a solidifying secret, secreted by the animal. These buildings often look like pipes. Among the mollusks are common buildings of frozen foam. Some worms burrow holes of a rather complex configuration, and some mollusks dig through the passages even in stone, using for this slime, which helps dissolve limestone. To protect eggs, invertebrates often construct cocoons from the frozen secret of specific glands.

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