Constructive and destructive consequences of the conflict, Settlement...

7.2. Constructive and destructive consequences of the conflict

Conflict can be functional and dysfunctional. Functional conflicts lead to increased efficiency. Conflicts are also dysfunctional ends with a general dissatisfaction, the destruction of cooperation. Accordingly, the consequences of the conflict can be constructive or destructive. Among the first - the search and development of a mutually acceptable solution, the removal of hostility, detente, the analysis of problems and the development of various options for their solution. Destructive consequences of the conflict are as follows: individuals feel dissatisfaction with the situation, they are overcome by the general poor state of health.

The constructive consequences of the conflict include: a sense of involvement in solving a problem that reduces the difficulties in implementing the solution; the location of the parties to cooperate in future situations; reduction of the syndrome of obedience; expansion of a set of alternative solutions to the problem; Working out by the members of the group of possible problems in the performance even before the decision is implemented; the attention of the parties to the problem that provokes individuals to conflict interaction and requires its solution.

Among the destructive consequences of the conflict: dissatisfaction, poor state of mind (for example, the growth of staff turnover and the decline in productivity); less cooperation in the future; strong devotion to their group and unproductive competition with other groups; the formation of the idea of ​​another group as "enemy", the notion of one's goals as positive, and of the other side's goals as negative; Collapse of interaction and communication between the conflicting; increased hostility between conflicting parties; giving greater importance to the "win" in conflict, rather than solving a real problem.

The stage of liquidation of consequences of conflicts is especially important when it comes to interethnic conflicts. The most acute stage of an armed conflict, accompanied by open clashes and casualties of all parties involved in the conflict, is usually its shortest stage. As soon as the power structures manage to quash the conflict, take control of the situation, provide medical and humanitarian assistance to all those affected and needy, the so-called phase of liquidating the consequences of the conflict comes.

From the plane of problems associated with the cessation of bloodshed and the restoration of order, the conflict turns into the plane of solving problems of a political and legal nature. The time to eliminate the consequences of the conflict often requires much more than the cessation of armed clashes. But it is possible to talk about the complete elimination of the consequences of the conflict only after solutions have been found for all the political and legal problems that to some extent restrain the settlement process. This phase can take years.

7.3. Conflict resolution and resolution

Conflict settlement is possible through compromise, domination of one side over another and integration.

Compromise is a way of settling the conflict, meaning concessions on both sides and therefore undesirable for both of them.

Domination is the victory of one side over another. Despite the relative simplicity of this method, it is inefficient from a long-term perspective.

Integration is a way of finding a solution in which the desires of all conflict actors are fulfilled and neither side sacrifices anything at all. It is integration that opens up fundamentally new opportunities for conflict. The integration is based on the relevant actions of the stakeholders: the identification of all differences and the most significant contradictions. However, resolving conflicts integratively is complicated, as a rule, by the search for new solutions. Thanks to integration, something new and valuable can be created. This establishes an understanding of conflicts as phenomena associated with the progressive development of social organization, and their content is considered as a possible criterion for assessing the professional performance of social workers.

J. Rubin proposes to distinguish the following possible ways of conflict resolution:

- dominance, when one side tries to impose its other will by physical or psychological means;

- surrender, assuming that one side is unconditionally inferior to the victory of another;

- withdrawal when one party refuses to continue to participate in the conflict;

- negotiations, during which the parties to the conflict (two or more) exchange proposals and ideas to find a mutually acceptable agreement;

Third-party interference - an individual or group that does not have a direct relationship to the conflict, but makes efforts to move towards an agreement.

H. Darendorf offers the following sequence in the application of various forms of conflict resolution.

1. Conversation. They presuppose the creation of a special body designed for regular meetings of the conflicting parties to discuss critical issues and make decisions. If the negotiations prove to be ineffective, it is recommended that the third parties, that is, those not participating in the conflict, be involved in the conflict.

2. Mediation. This is the softest form of participation of the "third party". Mediation involves the consent of the parties to periodic cooperation with the mediator and consideration of his proposals. In the opinion of Charles Darendorf, despite the seeming non-mandatory nature of this mode of action, mediation is often a very effective tool for conflict resolution.

3. Arbitration. This is the next step in resolving conflicts. The peculiarity of arbitration is that in case of referring to it as to the "third party" execution of its decisions is considered mandatory. Arbitration makes binding both an appeal to the "third party" and decision-making. This brings this measure closer to actually suppressing the conflict.

H. Darendorf stresses that the settlement of conflicts does not lead to their disappearance. If there is a society, there are conflicts. However, the forms of regulation affect the violence of conflicts. Regulated conflict is to a certain extent a mitigated conflict.

The resolution of the conflict is the minimization of problems separating the actors of the conflict, usually carried out through the search for compromise, reaching agreement, etc. An external sign of conflict resolution may be the completion of the incident, that is, the cessation of the conflict interaction of the conflicting parties. Elimination, termination of the incident is a necessary, but insufficient, condition for the settlement of the conflict. Often, after stopping active conflict interaction, individuals continue to experience a frustrating state, to search for its cause. And in this case the conflict that was extinguished could break out again.

The resolution of a social conflict is possible only if the conflict situation changes. This change can take many forms. But the most effective change in the conflict situation, allowing to pay off the conflict, is considered the elimination of the cause of the conflict.

Indeed, in a social conflict, eliminating the cause inevitably leads to its resolution. However, the emotional conflict is completely resolved only when the subjects cease to see each other in the friend of the enemy.

It is also possible to resolve the administrative conflict by changing the requirements of one of the parties: rivals make concessions and change the purpose of their behavior in the conflict. A managerial conflict can be resolved as a result of depletion of the resources of the parties or interference of the "third force" creating an overwhelming preponderance of one of the parties, and, finally, as a result of the complete elimination of the opponent. In all these cases, the conflict situation always changes.

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